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CONLANG  May 2013, Week 3

CONLANG May 2013, Week 3

Subject:

Re: Typical lexicon size in natlangs

From:

MorphemeAddict <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 19 May 2013 22:28:14 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

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text/plain (295 lines)

On Sun, May 19, 2013 at 10:09 PM, H. S. Teoh <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> I apologize for starting and then dropping out of the middle of a very
> interesting discussion -- it just so happened I left on a vacation and
> right now have very spotty internet access. Today I got a more steady
> connection so I thought I should (start to) catch up a little.
>
>
> On Sun, May 12, 2013 at 01:49:28PM +0100, Sam Stutter wrote:
> > Just thinking aloud here:
> >
> > It strikes me that the question people ask when they say "how many
> > words does a natlang have?" is actually "how deep and wide is the
> > semantic field a natlang is capable of differentiating?". When you get
> > down to it, the fact that French has two words ("le" and "la") instead
> > of the English "the" is utterly irrelevant and doesn't really say
> > anything about that language's semantic capabilities - only the nature
> > of its grammar. If you do want to count them as separate words then
> > should you count the conjugations of Spanish verbs (particularly the
> > irregular ones)? Words with affixes? Is "he runs" different from "I
> > ran" in a measurement of "words"? Where does a semantic difference
> > "male running presently" and "myself running in the past" become a
> > grammatical difference?
>
> Excellent insight!
>
>
> > Let's say we use some sort of metalanguage to describe every possible
> > thing, event or quality in the universe. Yes, such a language is
> > impossible, but for theoretical purposes we can use it to say: "how
> > many of these things, events and qualities does the natlang in
> > question describe?"
> >
> > The answer, of course, is all of them, because even if your natlang
> > has no word for "airplane" you can probably describe it adequately
> > well using words you already have. English has to do this with
> > familial relations and body parts all the time. I guess the only way
> > you could do this, without resorting to asking "is it in the
> > dictionary?" is to attempt to measure a language's capability to
> > describe things succinctly - hence "big metal bird mounted by humans"
> > is less succinct than "aeroplane". Then again, "airplane" isn't in
> > itself particularly succinct, being formed from two words which
> > already existed.
>
> I can imagine how something like this may have started as a description
> of some sort, which then gets abbreviated into a 2-3 word phrase that
> acts as a stand-in for the longer description, which in turn then gets
> abbreviated even further -- perhaps by dropping out part of the phrase
> once you've pronounced enough of it to be unambiguous as to what you're
> referring to, or perhaps by creating acronyms as Indonesian and Russian
> have done on several occasions. These further-abbreviated phrases may
> then become compounds of the "airplane" or "blackbird" sort, a
> portamenteau of some kind (e.g. Russian заработная плата -> зарплата),
> or an acronym that may, in time, become an unanalyzable lexeme.
>

Japanese "wapuro" is like this, I think, borrowed from "wo(rd)
pro(cessor)".

stevo

>
>
> [...]
> > In the end, a language needs to describe some basic things quite
> > succinctly - man, woman, fire, water, etc. And that's about it.
> [...]
>
> I think what we observe in natlangs is basically the result of many
> generations of (mostly unconcious) refinement of whatever original
> lexemes there were in the primordial language to best suit the daily
> uses that it was put to. Why are words like man, woman, fire, etc., the
> most succinct (generally-speaking anyway)? Probably because they are
> used the most frequently, so even if they started out as really wordy
> phrases, they would be worn down rather quickly through frequency of use
> into short, convenient forms. And what words would be worn down fastest
> in this way depends on what contexts they are most frequently used in --
> it's a culture-dependent thing.
>
> We see this process happening with many modern inventions: a compact
> disc read-only memory become acronymized into CD-ROM, which then became
> a household word that has basically become (or pretty near becoming) an
> unanalyzable lexeme "cdrom", which isn't even spelt with capital letters
> to indicate its acronymic origins anymore nowadays. So we have a longish
> descriptive phrase "compact disc read-only memory" that has worn down
> pretty quickly -- just about a decade or so -- into basically a word in
> its own right. This process was driven by its frequency of use; a
> similar phrasal description that referred to something uncommon would
> probably remain as a phrase or at the most an obscure acronym or sorts
> for quite a while longer.
>
> So as long as the language (natlang or conlang) is able to somehow refer
> to something, and the language is actively being used, the mechanism of
> diachronic change will kick in and turn it into a lexeme, given enough
> time and use.
>
> For the purposes of conlangs, then, one milestone to shoot for is to get
> to the point where coining new words no longer requires pulling phonemes
> out of the air according to whatever phonological/aesthetic constraints
> there are, but one can recycle existing lexemes/morphemes/etc., to at
> least be able to refer to the referent, and apply some process of what
> we may call "diachronic erosion" to turn it into a new lexeme.
>
> Of course, one shortcut, which some may regard as "cheating", is to just
> import foreign words wholesale -- which natlangs have the penchant of
> doing as well, especially when confronted with a sudden influx of new
> referents that need to be referred to frequently. I am reminded of when
> my country of birth realized the need to keep up with scientific
> developments, and the local language lacked the terminology to be able
> to express these concepts, they set about importing said terminology
> from English with mostly minor respellings to fit the local phonological
> conventions. Once imported, many of these borrowings started acquiring
> localized forms through the derivational and inflectional apparatus of
> the local language, so you have quite a good number of these interesting
> words whose roots are obviously European in origin, but whose expression
> is dressed in the trappings of an Austronesian morphology.
>
> In a conlang, if its setting is the modern world, and it isn't spoken by
> an isolationist community, I'd expect some amount of such borrowings in
> its lexicon.
>
>
> On Sun, May 12, 2013 at 08:09:06AM -0700, Gary Shannon wrote:
> > That's a fascinating analysis of the problem. Here's another question
> > one might ask, specifically about conlangs rather than natlangs: At
> > what point can I consider my conlang vocabulary "complete"?
> >
> > You point out that one language might say "big metal bird mounted by
> > humans" where another could say "airplane", or even "jet". But for
> > conlangers, the real question, or at least the practical, pragmatic
> > question is: if my conlang has no word for "airplane", can my conlang
> > say "big metal bird mounted by humans". Yes, I can describe a thing,
> > rather than name it, but to do so I must have a lexicon adequate to
> > the job of describing that thing.
> >
> > The question for conlangers might better be: At what point do I have
> > an adequate "defining vocabulary" (
> > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defining_vocabulary ), because once you
> > have something like Longman's defining vocabulary you can write an
> > arbitrarily large dictionary entirely in the conlang.
> >
> > So I would phrase the conlanger's version of the question thusly: For
> > my conlang X how many (and which) words do I need in order to be able
> > to compile a dictionary entirely in conlang X? I'm going to call that
> > the "Critical Mass Lexicon", because at that point, the lexicon can
> > support its own growth without using an L1 crutch.
> [...]
>
> I like this idea very much!
>
> I'd like to borrow from computer parlance and call it the "bootstrapping
> lexicon" -- the minimum vocabulary that's necessary for the conlang to
> be able to "pull itself up standing by its boot straps", so to speak.
> It's an interesting area of investigation in general, and not just for
> conlangs -- operating system designers and compiler writers grapple with
> this question as well. In the field of programming language design (at
> least for *systems* programming languages), there's a point at which the
> language has become expressive enough to be able to implement a compiler
> for the language in the language itself. One then arrives at the very
> interesting concept of a compiler that compiles itself -- which opens up
> chicken-and-egg questions of what to do when you need to implement said
> language on a new platform that doesn't have an existing working
> compiler for it (the new platform doesn't yet have a compiler for this
> language, you see, but since the compiler itself is written in this
> language, how do you get a working compiler on it in the first place?)
> Anyway, fascinating as it is, the point is that this process is called
> "bootstrapping", which is why I like that term better than "critical
> mass". (Too many things are "critical" nowadays... the word is starting
> to lose its punch.) How do you get a conlang to a point where it's able
> to describe itself?
>
> Of course, this then leads to the question of what concepts are required
> in a defining vocabulary, and how does that translate to entries in a
> conlang's lexicon? I suspect that here, just as with the original
> question, there is no unique answer, though a crude list of areas that
> need to be covered at minimum would be helpful in, say, evaluating the
> completeness of a conlang's lexicon.
>
>
> On Sun, May 12, 2013 at 04:32:27PM -0400, Herman Miller wrote:
> > On 5/12/2013 2:04 PM, Gary Shannon wrote:
> [...]
> > Defining animals like "mouse" is tricky. There's hundreds of small
> > rodents in the world; which ones are mice and which ones are rats?
> > Which ones are different enough to get their own names, like "gerbil"?
> > It might be more relevant to see how many pages it takes for NSM to
> > define words like "guitar".
> >
> > Then again, definitions for words like "guitar" might not even be as
> > straightforward as they initially seem. It's a stringed instrument
> > with six strings, which is played by placing fingers behind the frets
> > and plucking the strings, right? Well, there are twelve-stringed
> > guitars, with six courses of two strings each (tuned in unison or
> > octaves). Some guitars have seven strings. If you put six strings on a
> > banjo, that doesn't make it a guitar. Is a charango a kind of guitar?
> > A ukulele?
>
> For the purposes of an artlang with an associated conculture, I'd say
> take the generic approach of "guitar" == "lute" == "stringed
> instrument", and then add refinements of the form "plucked instruments"
> vs. "bowed instrument", then maybe size/shape/usage, etc.. But yeah, in
> general, the mapping isn't going to be 1-to-1. Which pretty much is what
> happens in natlangs anyway, unless the word is just borrowed directly
> from the source language. And generally naturalistic conlangs will be
> cutting up semantic space in non-1-to-1 ways anyway. So I don't really
> see this as being problematic as long as there is a sufficient defining
> vocabulary that can describe the target objects, and a sufficient
> refinement vocabulary for making fine distinctions where needed.
>
> So for example a conlang's equivalent of a "lute" may initially start
> out as "generic stringed instrument", but eventually get refined to
> "plucked stringed instrument with neck and resonating body", and perhaps
> differentiated from other variants by more detailed descriptions like
> "... having a neck about 12-18 inches long terminated by an embellished
> scroll, with a flat pear-shaped body traditionally made of balsam wood,
> originally invented by the bards of the northlands", etc.. The important
> thing is not so much a mathematically-exact description from which a
> craftsman might be able to construct a replica, than a fundamental core
> of lexemes that is expressive enough to be able to produce such a
> description, should one be asked for.
>
>
> > What would be useful is to have a checklist of things like musical
> > instruments, organized in groups like checklists of birds or mammals.
> > Then you could pick examples from the list to illustrate the
> > definitions of words in your language. You could get into some tricky
> > dialect problems like the classification of cookies and biscuits, but
> > even checklists of birds run into issues with names (e.g "Gray-headed
> > Chickadee" vs. "Siberian Tit").
>
> The tricky thing about this is that then you run into the danger of
> making English-centric distinctions and overlooking non-English
> distinctions (y'know, like a conlang differentiating between cookie and
> biscuit, but not snow and snow -- where there are multiple types of snow
> that could be important to the culture of the speakers). And the fact
> that English exhibits dialectal differences between words like "cookie"
> and "biscuit" perhaps shows that there's a level of detail past which
> most common people wouldn't care (and wouldn't need to care) about the
> differences anyway, so the exact meaning of the lexeme may well be
> dependent on the exact social context in which it occurs.  Which, of
> course, may change over time. Something that may have started out as
> referring to a specific baked wafer made by a specific cook in a
> specific tribe at a particular time in the history of the conculture
> may, over time, develop into a generic term meaning any baked wafer-like
> food, and subsequently fragment into dialect-dependent specific meanings
> like "cake made of wheat flour and honey, but not with sesame seeds
> because there's another specific word for *that*", etc.. Each dialect
> may well confine the previously generic meaning of the word differently,
> so you end up with the same lexeme that carves out two similar but
> distinct subsets of conceptual space, leading to much inter-dialectal
> hilarity when the resulting mix is then thrown into a story plot.
>
> Regardless, the underlying thrust in my original question was really
> about how one can gauge when a conlang's lexicon has reached the
> "critical point" or "bootstrapping point" where it is able to "pull its
> own weight", so to speak, and survive without the conlanger's L1 crutch.
> Or, if that point hasn't been reached yet, how to identify the deficient
> areas of the lexicon that could most profitably be worked on.
>
> I'm constantly wary of the trap of getting to the point where you've
> pretty much coined all the vocabulary that your original vision of the
> conculture would give you, yet the conlang still feels lacking because
> you know that when you throw it out into the big wild world it may not
> be able to survive without the continued a priori coinage of
> unanalysable lexemes by the conlanger (pulling more lexemes out of thin
> air, essentially) -- and then the temptation is to just flip through an
> English dictionary of sorts and just coin new words for whatever isn't
> already there -- and ending up with Yet Another English Relex, albeit
> with a subtle variation that initially shows a decidedly non-English
> core, but upon closer inspection the core is merely an odd piece out of
> what's otherwise just an English relex. Or just invent some arbitrary
> system of philosophical categorization (often unknowingly biased by
> English distinctions and lack of non-English distinctions), and invoke
> the name of mathematical induction on the rules of derivation and
> thereby generating, in theory, the rest of the unwritten lexicon
> automagically.  Such things do not happen in natlangs, unfortunately.
>
> A far more pleasing goal to me is to get the conlang to the point where
> it has enough of its own vocabulary to form the basis of a defining
> vocabulary for new terms, that you can rely on when new words are
> demanded of the language. Then you can have the confidence that the
> resulting new words will not be colored by English-centric biases but
> will bear a flavor unique to the conlang. And ultimately, such a
> mechanism for generating new coinages will be tied to deeper concultural
> issues like how the native speakers perceive their world, and how they
> make decisions when there's a choice of several alternative routes for
> creating the new words.
>
>
> T
>
> --
> Study gravitation, it's a field with a lot of potential.
>

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January 2012, Week 3
January 2012, Week 2
January 2012, Week 1
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 5
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 5
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 5
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 5
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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