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CONLANG  June 2013, Week 1

CONLANG June 2013, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Why does the glottal stop often replace /t/ in English?

From:

"H. S. Teoh" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 1 Jun 2013 11:01:43 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (86 lines)

On Sat, Jun 01, 2013 at 11:43:16AM -0400, Matthew George wrote:
> ŋ is supposedly a more-difficult sound to make than most others, which
> I've read is part of why it tends to vanish from languages and is only
> a syllabic coda in English.  There are thought to be reasons why it's
> so relatively uncommon, and why it's replaced.
>
> But there aren't any such reasons for the shift from t to ʔ...?

Difficulty of pronunciation is only one part of the picture. Another
factor to consider is the tendency for the vocal apparatus to "cut
corners" when in fast speech -- in order to achieve greater speed, it's
desirable to only approximate the sounds close enough for them to still
be recognizable, rather than to move all the way to the extreme
configurations demanded by the pure phones.

In the case of /t/ -> /?/, I can sorta see how this might've happened.
Both are unvoiced stops, and if you study phonetics, you'll realize that
stops are recognized mainly by their influence on the surrounding
vowels. That is to say, phonetically speaking, there is no difference
between /t/ and /?/ except for their influence on the sound waves of the
surrounding vowels.  So in that sense, /t/ and /?/ are similar, even
though they have two completely different POA's. But of course, this
alone doesn't explain why /t/ should shift to /?/.

The second step is to recognize that in fast speech, our vocal apparatus
tends to "cut corners".  Consider a /t/ in a stream of very fast speech
sounds, say between two vowels (which is where the /t/ -> /?/ sound
change happens). In order to pronounce a /t/, the tongue has to move up
against the alveolar ridge and press against it hard enough to cut off
the flow of air through the mouth, and the vocal chords have to stop
vibrating (otherwise it'd be /d/ instead).  Now imagine the tongue
having to do this repeatedly -- /t/ is a rather common sound in English,
after all.  Continually moving the tongue up and down like this can be
tiring for the vocal apparatus, and besides, when speaking really fast,
the coloring of /t/ on adjacent vowels can often be overlooked.  That is
to say, if the closure of the tongue on the alveolar ridge is omitted
while still maintaining the devoicing (closure of the glottis), thereby
resulting in /?/, the cessation of air flow from the mouth is still
present (which is the most prominent feature of /t/, phonetically
speaking), and the secondary feature of /t/, its coloring of adjacent
vowels, doesn't significantly change.

The resulting word still sounds "close enough" that in fast speech, one
doesn't notice the difference. Since /?/ in this context is easier to
pronounce (the tongue doesn't have to keep moving up against the
alveolar ridge) and the resulting sound is still "close enough", one
would tend to apply this "optimization", and thus you have the sound
change /t/ -> /?/.

A similar process can be seen in /k/ -> /?/ in words like "Cockney"
[kA?nI] in some dialects: the /k/ coda in the first syllable causes the
preceding vowel to sound "clipped" due to the cessation of airflow
during the stop, and since the /k/ is the beginning of a consonant
cluster, the only sign of its presence is its coloring on the preceding
vowel. In fast speech, therefore, the omission of this coloring (i.e.,
if /k/ were substituted with /?/) would often be unnoticed. Making it
/?n/ instead of /kn/ also makes it easier to pronounce, so the sound
change /k/ -> /?/ is favored in this context.

Note that these sound changes are context-dependent. Initial /t/, for
example, doesn't become /?/ for very good reasons: initial /t/ in
English is [t_h]; the aspiration after the /t/ produces significantly
different phonetic characteristics in the resulting sound waves. It
produces a noisy fricative noise (not unlike a [h]), which is also a
prominent characteristic, phonetically speaking.  Substituting with /?/
in this context would eliminate this prominent characteristic, causing
the resulting word to be far too different from the original to be
recognizable. So /t/ -> /?/ in this context is not favored (and indeed,
doesn't happen).

Indeed, a survey of other languages show that [t_h] tends to change not
to [?], but to [T] instead -- the fricative [T] preserves the noisy
characteristics of the aspiration in [t_h] better.  (One can observe
this change e.g. between (pre-)classical Greek and later forms of Greek,
for example). It seems that t-initial words in English haven't undergone
this change yet, but if I'm not wrong, the initial consonant in words
like "thin", "thick", "think", etc., was historically [t_h] that has
since become [T]. The aspiration of initial /t/ as [t_h] seems to be
probably a later development in English.


T

-- 
Verbing weirds language. -- Calvin (& Hobbes)

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