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CONLANG  June 2013, Week 1

CONLANG June 2013, Week 1

Subject:

Re: nominal (or adjectival) predicates: how do you form them?

From:

"H. S. Teoh" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 5 Jun 2013 16:45:35 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (174 lines)

On Wed, Jun 05, 2013 at 04:15:41PM -0500, Matthew Boutilier wrote:
> i am interested in how your conlangs that put case endings on nouns make
> nominal predicates (especially if you have a zero-copula!).
> 
> so, like, if you have to say "the X is a Y," "she is Z," do you have a
> special way of doing that? even if your way is just to put the same case
> ending on X and Y, and/or insert a word for "is," i'd still like to hear
> about it, with examples.

Tatari Faran has no copula. At all. Before I present the examples, I
should explain that in TF, NP's have the structure:

	noun [modifiers] case_marker

IOW, nouns cannot stand alone; they are required to be paired with a
case marker. However, interestingly enough, in nominal predicates the
predicating noun *does* stand alone! Here are some examples:

1)	samat sa.
	man   CASE2:MASC
	A man.

2)	bata' sa.
	chief CASE2:MASC
	A chief.

3)	samat sa         bata'-0.
	man   CASE2:MASC chief-PRED
	The man is a chief.

4)	bata' sa         samat-0.
	chief CASE2:MASC man-PRED
	The chief is a man.

This is strikingly similar to your protolang's omission of case ending
in nominal predicates!

However, the story doesn't end here. Sentences (3) and (4) above, while
grammatically valid, feel like they "lack" something... because in TF,
indicative clauses are usually strengthened by words called "finalizers"
-- words synonymous with the main verb / predicative adjective that are
tacked onto the end of a sentence to re-emphasize its indicative
quality. These finalizers are omitted from questions and irrealis /
subjunctive clauses, as an overt gesture of non-finality. So the usual
pattern for a simple TF clause is:

	NP verb FIN

or:

	NP adjective FIN

However, (3) and (4) above have the structure:

	NP noun

-- they are missing the finalizer usually heard at the end of an
indicative clause. Therefore, to give proper closure to the utterance,
TF speakers often insert the word _ai_, which by itself is an
interjection meaning "yes" or "indeed":

3b)	samat sa         bata' ai.
	man   CASE2:MASC chief FIN
	The man is a chief.

When used in this context, _ai_ loses some of its original meaning of
"yes", so I left it untranslated. (TF finalizers are often cognate with
other semantically-rich words, but they themselves carry no such
semantic content, having been reduced to a mere grammatical function.)

This usage of _ai_ is still a relatively new innovation in TF, so its
use isn't as consistent as the usual verbal/adjectival finalizers are,
yet. So (3) and (4) are still grammatical utterances, but (3b) is
becoming more preferred thanks to analogy with verbal/adjectival
clauses.

The choice of _ai_ as finalizer also lets one add emphasis to nominal
predicates -- "the man is a chief *indeed*!". It also lets you
substitute the opposite finalizer _bai_ (on its own meaning "no") to
effect a negation of the predicate:

5)	samat sa         bata' bai.
	man   CASE2:MASC chief NEG.FIN
	The man is not a chief.

According to tradition grammar, (5) should be worded as:

5b)	samat sa         bata' be.
	man   CASE2:MASC chief NEG
	The man is not a chief.

_be_ being the usual nominal negator, so here the predicate NP is _bata'
be_, whereas in (5), the NP is _bata'_ and _bai_ is a finalizer tacked
on after the predicate. (5), however, is quickly catching on among TF
speakers, since it fits in better with the NP PRED FIN formula used in
verbal/adjectival clauses. (5b) is now being heard as somewhat
incomplete due to the missing finalizer, and indeed, _bai_ looks awfully
like it was a historical contraction of _be ai_, thus showing the same
tendency toward requiring a finalizer -- the same one! -- as the
non-negated nominal predicate.


> this might not even be something that people have considered as an
> area for innovation (well, especially if you have a nice word meaning
> "is").

In retrospect, I'm quite happy that I chose to outright ban "is" from
Tatari Faran from day one. TF has absolutely no copula to speak of; it's
not just eliding the present tense copula as many natlangs tend to do.
To express things that in English (and many other natlangs) would use a
verb to-be for, TF uses various alternative constructions and
periphrases. This choice has led to some rather interesting structures
as you can see above.


> but my incipient proto-lang does not have a word for "is" (well, it
> does, but its usage is quite restricted, à la Turkish). rather,
> predicate nouns are marked by the *absence* of the nominative ending.
> so:

I'm quite pleasantly surprised at how similar this is to TF. :)


[...]
> similarly with question-words:
> 
> kæʔn-æn     tɬin           nis-Ø ?
> name-NOM  thou.GEN  what?-PRED
> 'What is your name?' (using *nisæn 'what (kind)?')
[...]

When it comes to questions with nominal predicates, TF has several modes
of expression. I won't use asking for names as example, because TF uses
an atypical idiom there, but let's say we take the previous examples
"the man is a chief" and turn that into questions of various sorts:

6)	sii  so         samat sa?
	what CASE2:NEUT man   CASE2:MASC
	Who is the man?  I.e., what is his occupation?
	(3) or (3b) would be a typical answer.

(The neuter gender is used with _sii_ here as a generic epicene.
Strictly speaking, it should be _sii sa_ with the masculine case marker,
since the referent is masculine, but it appears that this stricter usage
is starting to be displaced by the more generic neuter _sii so_.)

7)	samat sa         bata' ta?
	man   CASE2:MASC chief Q
	Is the man a chief? (One may answer _ai_ "yes" or _bai_ "no", or
	use (3b) which conveniently has _ai_ embedded at the end!)

8)	sia so         bata'?
	who CASE2:NEUT chief
	Who is the chief?

Note the lack of finalizers in (6) through (8), which is an overt
gesture of a non-indicative mood. This lack is especially felt in (8),
where the case marker for _bata'_ is omitted.

The difference between (6) and (8) is that in (6), the referent, the
man, is already known, and we're asking about who he is, in the sense of
his occupation -- is he the chief, or the village clown? Whereas in (8),
we don't know who among the many possible candidates might be the chief,
and we're asking who is the one filling that role. Hence the use of a
distinct interrogative noun _sia_ instead of _sii_. This distinction
also shows up in the presence of the case marker after _samat_ in (6),
and its overt absence after _bata'_ in (8).


T

-- 
Кто везде - тот нигде.

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August 2002, Week 1
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July 2002, Week 1
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