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CONLANG  June 2013, Week 1

CONLANG June 2013, Week 1

Subject:

Re: nominal (or adjectival) predicates: how do you form them?

From:

"H. S. Teoh" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 5 Jun 2013 20:43:18 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (210 lines)

On Wed, Jun 05, 2013 at 07:20:49PM -0500, Matthew Boutilier wrote:
> On Wed, Jun 5, 2013 at 6:45 PM, H. S. Teoh <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
[...]
> > 1)      samat sa.
> >         man   CASE2:MASC
> >         A man.
> >
> > 2)      bata' sa.
> >         chief CASE2:MASC
> >         A chief.
> >
> > 3)      samat sa         bata'-0.
> >         man   CASE2:MASC chief-PRED
> >         The man is a chief.
> >
> > 4)      bata' sa         samat-0.
> >         chief CASE2:MASC man-PRED
> >         The chief is a man.
> >
> > This is strikingly similar to your protolang's omission of case ending
> > in nominal predicates!
> >
> 
> whoa!! i was going to say, this sounds extremely familiar.

:)


> > However, the story doesn't end here. Sentences (3) and (4) above,
> > while grammatically valid, feel like they "lack" something...
> > because in TF, indicative clauses are usually strengthened by words
> > called "finalizers" -- words synonymous with the main verb /
> > predicative adjective that are tacked onto the end of a sentence to
> > re-emphasize its indicative quality. These finalizers are omitted
> > from questions and irrealis / subjunctive clauses, as an overt
> > gesture of non-finality. So the usual pattern for a simple TF clause
> > is:
> >
> >         NP verb FIN
> >
> > or:
> >
> >         NP adjective FIN
> >
> > However, (3) and (4) above have the structure:
> >
> >         NP noun
> >
> > -- they are missing the finalizer usually heard at the end of an
> > indicative clause.
> 
> 
> so, on its own, could you use (3) to mean "[if] the man were a chief," or
> something (irrealis)? i assume you'd need an "if" word in there somewhere.

Well, the absence of a finalizer on its own does not necessarily
indicate irrealis/subjunctive. For one thing, finalizers also can also
be elided from all but the last clause in a long string of clauses
joined by conjunctions. This is often done for dramatic effect. The
missing finalizers in the earlier clauses make the listener anticipate
more, and the finalizer at the very end comes "with a bang",
figuratively speaking.

For irrealis/subjunctive, there is also a word-order change and the
insertion of subjunctive markers, the most common of which is _era_
"if". So the proper conditional form of (3) would be:

3c)	bata' era samat sa
	chief if  man   CASE2:MASC
	If the man were a chief, ...

This utterance is, of course, incomplete; the overt change in word order
and omission of finalizer makes the listener expect a following
indicative clause. Interestingly, _era_ when used in indicative word
order becomes "maybe":

3d)	samat sa         bata' era.
	man   CASE2:MASC chief maybe
	Maybe the man is a chief.

One can employ _era_ in both of two adjoining clauses to form irrealis
statements:

9)	bata' era samat sa,       
	chief if  man   CASE2:MASC

	tara' ka         surat era   nekaa    na         hike.
	3SG   CASE1:MASC seek  maybe criminal CASE3:MASC FIN

	If the man were a chief, he would seek out the criminal (for
	vengeance).

The _era_ in the second clause implies that the speaker doubts that the
man is chief. If this _era_ were omitted, then it would be a conditional
indicative statement (haha, I just made an irrealis statement).


> this reminds me a bit of Middle Egyptian, which tends only to employ
> the copula *jw* with adverbial predicates (nominal predicates are
> another story) when there is somehow a firm assertion:
> 
> *jw r` m pt
> *
> COP sun in sky
> "the sun is in the sky"
> "the sun was in the sky"
> "the sun will be in the sky"
> 
> *r` m pt
> *
> sun in sky
> 
> "when the sun is in the sky..."
> "were the sun in the sky..."
> 
> though i don't think this is a super rigid distinction. and i realize
> that your finalizing element is not a copula.

Right, but in this case, it seems the M.E. copula is being used in a
similar way to TF's _ai_ when used as a finalizer. :)

TF finalizers are interesting beasts... although they carry no semantic
content per se, they *are* cognate with meaningful words, and often add
nuance to the main clause. Some verbs can be paired with different
finalizers to give them different shades of meaning, e.g.: _surat
tarian_ - to seek, to look for something; _surat hike_ - to seek out for
the purpose of causing trouble (e.g. "if you don't pay protection money
we're going to *find* you!").

Most interestingly, though, finalizers seem to be most noticed when they
are *absent*. Their ubiquitous presence in indicative clauses conditions
one to expect them everywhere. When they don't show up, it causes one to
pause and take notice. Thus we have the device I alluded to earlier, of
stringing a bunch of clauses together and elide all but the last
finalizer in order to give a dramatic effect at the end. The absence of
finalizers also gives a ring of incompleteness to questions,
conditionals, and subjunctives.

Imperatives usually don't have finalizers either -- the action is only
desired, not actually done yet -- but one may add a finalizer to the
imperative to strengthen it -- it has the effect of "I want this *done*,
to the very *completion* thereof!"

One of the more obscure uses of finalizers are to mark cause and effect
clauses: in TF, a statement like "A because B" has the causal marker
_isi_ "because" present in *both* clauses; the way you tell them apart
is by the absence of finalizer in the cause, and the presence of
finalizer in the effect.

10a)	tara' sei       akuka isi     kuen na         anan,
	3SG   CASE2:FEM climb because tree CASE3:MASC FIN  

	ni-hamra      isi     keika'ina ka.
	CASE3.FEM-see because wolf      CASE1:MASC

	She climbed the tree because she saw the wolf.

10b)	tara' sei       akuka isi     kuen na,
	3SG   CASE2:FEM climb because tree CASE3:MASC

	ni-hamra      isi     keika'ina ka         aram.
	CASE3.FEM-see because wolf      CASE1:MASC FIN

	Because she climbed the tree, she saw the wolf.

The only difference between (10a) and (10b) is which clause has a
finalizer; the order of clauses can be swapped without changing the
meaning.


> > When it comes to questions with nominal predicates, TF has several
> > modes of expression. I won't use asking for names as example,
> > because TF uses an atypical idiom there, but let's say we take the
> > previous examples "the man is a chief" and turn that into questions
> > of various sorts:
> >
> > 6)      sii  so         samat sa?
> >         what CASE2:NEUT man   CASE2:MASC
> >         Who is the man?  I.e., what is his occupation?
> >         (3) or (3b) would be a typical answer.
> >
> > (The neuter gender is used with _sii_ here as a generic epicene.
> > Strictly speaking, it should be _sii sa_ with the masculine case marker,
> > since the referent is masculine, but it appears that this stricter usage
> > is starting to be displaced by the more generic neuter _sii so_.)
> >
> > 7)      samat sa         bata' ta?
> >         man   CASE2:MASC chief Q
> >         Is the man a chief? (One may answer _ai_ "yes" or _bai_ "no", or
> >         use (3b) which conveniently has _ai_ embedded at the end!)
> >
> >
> ok, i have a similar construction, the case-endingless nominal predicate
> with an interrogative particle:
> 
> āχ-æn       u=turæxæʔs-Ø ?
> man-NOM Q=chieftain-PRED ?
> 
> using '=' to show a clitic.
[...]

Nice, this construction parallels TF's quite well, modulo the respective
languages' syntaxes. :)


T

-- 
You have to expect the unexpected. -- RL

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March 2006, Week 5
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December 2005, Week 5
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December 2005, Week 3
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December 2005, Week 1
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March 2005, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 5
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March 2003, Week 5
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March 2003, Week 3
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March 2003, Week 1
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February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
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December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
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November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
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July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
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March 2002, Week 5
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December 2001, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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