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CONLANG  June 2013, Week 4

CONLANG June 2013, Week 4

Subject:

History of some spelling pronunciations (Was: Equivalent to Grand Master Plans in Proper Linguistics?)

From:

Jyri Lehtinen <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 23 Jun 2013 01:13:37 +0300

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (85 lines)

2013/6/22 Eric Christopherson <[log in to unmask]>

> On Jun 20, 2013, at 6:41 AM, Jyri Lehtinen <[log in to unmask]>
> wrote:
>
> > One is whether the reflex of the weak grade of /t/ is /d/ as in the
> > standard language of loss as in the eastern dialect area and the other is
> > whether the standard language /ts/ gets replaced by /t:/ which is typical
> > to many western dialects. For commonly used words I tend to use
> exclusively
> > the dialectal variants unless I aim for a hyper corrected register to put
> > someone off. Uncommon words haven't implemented this spread of dialectal
> > features and get the reflexes of the standard language. There is however
> a
> > middle ground between the two extremes where I'm never certain which
> reflex
> > to choose and the choice depends sensitively from the register of the
> > discourse. These examples are somewhat complicated by the fact that both
> of
> > the standard language reflexes are in fact historic spelling
> > pronunciations, but that's beside the point. I'm pretty certain that you
> > can find similar partial sound changes from your own idiolects as well.
>
> I'm curious as to what the "target" (I'm not sure of the correct term) of
> these spelling pronunciations was; did Finnish itself have <d> and <ts>
> pronounced as /d/ and /ts/? -- or did those spellings only occur in
> surrounding Germanic languages, and it was from there that the spelling
> pronunciation caused the *Finnish* graphemes to be pronounced likewise?
>
> I know <d> is a grade variant of /t/; does <ts> occur in native words?


You asked for an explanation and you shall get one that hopefully isn't too
long. These two segments and their dialectal cognates happen to be among
the most discussed ones in Finnish dialectology.

Both of the segments have native origins. <d> and older <dh> were
originally used to write a voiced dental fricative which was the weak grade
of /t/. Swedish had lost its own dental fricatives earlier so for Swedish
speakers the most obvious pronunciation of <d> was [d] instead of [δ]. Such
a contact influenced development has also happened in some dialect pockets
on the west coast. The [d] pronunciation must have spread as a prestige
pronunciation from Swedish speakers and in general educated people knowing
other European languages. Modern reflexes of old /δ/ in traditional
dialects but also in much of the non traditional colloquial language are
mostly /r/ and loss with increasingly rare /l/ and only marginal /δ/.

There is actually a phonetic clue in modern pronunciation that the standard
language /d/ isn't a product of fully natural development. The
corresponding dental stop /t/ is clearly dental as according to all
evidence was the original voiced fricative. However, the modern
pronunciation of /d/ is distinctly alveolar (it shares its POA with the
modern /n l r/) with no apparent internal reason for it to be so.

The modern <ts> = /ts/ in the standard language originates from the digraph
<tz> in written Old Finnish where it was used to indicate /θ ~ θ:/. Yet
again you can explain the [ts] pronunciation with prestige influence by non
native speakers not familiar with the sound and distracted by its spelling
while nearly all dialects diverged away from the fricative pronunciation
into various different directions. The dialectal divergence left very
little native support for any "correct" pronunciation and gave room for
outside influences to step in.

The /ts/ segment rather bafflingly corresponds to a Proto Finnic dental
affricate. Dialectally the segment has a large variation of different
cognates, most common being /t:/ and /ht/, but also /ts/ is found in the
south west dialects. This dialectal /ts/ seems to go directly back to the
original affricate but both /t:/ and /ht/ are reflexes of /θ:/. This might
seem a strange development, but we actually do have data that gives firm
evidence for the existence of the intermediate /θ/. Firstly there are a
couple of dialects that have preserved the sound up to modern times.
Secondly there are place names that have Swedish phonetic (i.e.
non-spelling) substitutions for this sound that wouldn't make sense from an
affricate, such as Fi. Ähtävä ~ Se. Esse. Thirdly there are Finnish loans
in North Saami that preserve this sound, such as NSaa. Ruoŧŧa = /ruoθ:a/ ~
Fi. Ruotsi, "Sweden". And lastly there are written accounts from the Old
Finnish period that clearly describe the sound as a dental fricative.

Naturally both loaning and new internally coined words having /d/ and /ts/
solidify their status in Finnish phonology. It's worth a note that where
these segments don't have old native roots they are much less likely to get
substituted by dialectally influenced pronunciations.

   -Jyri

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