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CONLANG  August 2013, Week 2

CONLANG August 2013, Week 2

Subject:

Re: A traveller's report in Buruya Nzaysa

From:

Jan Strasser <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 13 Aug 2013 18:47:08 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (193 lines)

This is the second part of an annotated translation of a traveller's 
report on a type of "great serpents" into Buruya Nzaysa, based on a 
real-world account by the famous explorer Marco Polo ( ~1298, 
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Travels_of_Marco_Polo/Book_2/Chapter_49 ). 
I'm also cross-posting it to my blog ( http://audmanh.wordpress.com/ ). 
Here's the relevant section of the text:



Tsonah rabɛ lu ɛte gɔla lu ɛnalu əno mpu lo rəlse, dal tah rabɛ lu tolbɔ 
ada lu sade oskə ogu rɛ saxa ɔ tola dəsmoh, o saxa ɔra əña rɔmaxa mɛsɛ 
alme nzugi. O pɔwah nzɔ ɛma ɔ ani ntsa, ni wəyaxa wɛtuldɔ lu nzəwo ayru 
u tilɛ ga u əña sədə kunə o kili nimə́luyə o wəyaxa lu əñali ayru nzugi, 
ntɛ ri maxa lo mɛwɛnomɔ xa esə ɛru. Pɔwaxa ñalta lu ñavo ŋkə same rapsə, 
ni wəyaxa nzɔ waru skɛga əño o tul; o mah tsa ntɛvɔ́ve esə rɛvle.



By day they live underground because of the great heat, but in the 
evening they go out in order to search for food, and they devour every 
animal they can catch. And when these serpents are very hungry, 
sometimes they will seek out the lairs of tigers or other large wild 
beasts, and devour their cubs, without the parents being able to prevent 
it. Indeed if they catch the big ones themselves they devour them too; 
they can make no resistance.



And here's a detailed sentence-by-sentence analysis:



Tsonah      rabɛ     lu      ɛte gɔla    lu      ɛnalu  əno  mpu      lo 
      rəlse,
HAB.AUX-3PL during.3 DEF.ACC day under.3 DEF.ACC ground stay due_to.3 
DEF.NOM hot_weather
During the day they stay under the ground because of the heat,

dal tah          rabɛ     lu      tolbɔ   ada  lu      sade      oskə
but INCH.AUX-3PL during.3 DEF.ACC evening to.3 DEF.ACC outside.3 come
but in the evening they come out

ogu        rɛ      saxa           ɔ         tola dəsmoh,
so_as_to.3 SUB.ACC NULL.AUX-3PL>3 INDEF.ACC meal search_for
in order to search for food,

o   saxa           ɔra əña    rɔmaxa        mɛsɛ alme              nzugi.
and NULL.AUX-3PL>3 all animal REL.AUX-3PL>3 meet without_exception devour
and they devour every single animal that they come across.


There are a few things to note in this sentence. The first of these is 
that the word mpu 'because', normally a conjunction, is used as a 
preposition here. It's the only one of Buruya Nzaysa's core conjunctions 
that can be used in this way. As its argument it has the noun rəlse 
here, which is interesting too because of its semantics: It's a 
monolexemic word that refers to hot weather, not necessarily with 
sunshine but always with a high temperature that makes people feel 
slightly uncomfortable.

In the second line we find an instance of a nominalized preposition, 
something that Buruya Nzaysa does quite frequently, especially with 
temporal prepositions. Here, it's done with a locative preposition 
though: ada lu sade 'to the outside', which is literally more like 'to 
the out (of it)'.

In the last line we see the first relative clause in the text - a fairly 
minimalistic one, rɔmaxa mɛsɛ 'which they meet'. In spoken Buruya 
Nzaysa, relative clauses are formed like normal main clauses without an 
overt subject, using the special auxiliary verb rɔma- without any other 
indication of subordination. This construction derives from reanalysis 
of a former relative pronoun due to syntactic and phonological 
similarity with other auxiliaries. In the more conservative registers of 
the language, the old construction is still in use; here it would have 
the form rɔma wəru mɛsə; REL 3PL.ANIM.NOM meet.VN.

There are also lots of new words here:
gɔla (pp.) 'under, below'. Etymology: Ndak Ta ob nggolang 'at the foot 
of' (parallel to Fáralo wægól and Ndok Aisô k'eulag).
ɛnalu (n.) 'ground, floor, bottom'. Etymology: Ndak Ta ainalau 'downward 
place'.
ogu (pp.) 'in order to, for the purpose of, in preparation of'. 
Etymology: Ndak Ta ob gau 'on the road to'.
alme (adv.) 'invariably, without exception'. Etymology: Ndak Ta al mi 
'without none'.
nzugi (v.) 'devour, eat greedily (usually said of animals); use up'. 
Borrowed from Miwan zugīr 'swallow'. The initial fricative ended up 
prenasalized mostly because Buruya Nzaysa does not have non-prenasalized 
voiced /z/. However, it seems very likely that a slightly older version 
of Miwan did have word-initial prenasalized obstruents, at least as 
clusters, and quite possibly there was something like that in the 
ancestor of this word too. In any case, the name of the language itself 
clearly derives from earlier *mbiw (from Proto-Eigə-Isthmus *ʔum-pew 'of 
the people').



O   pɔwah        nzɔ     ɛma     ɔ         ani    ntsa,
and COND.COP-3PL TOP.NOM serpent INDEF.ACC hungry very
And if these serpents are very hungry,

ni      wəyaxa        wɛtuldɔ lu      nzəwo   ayru      u         tilɛ
if/then FUT.AUX-3PL>3 even    DEF.ACC shelter of.3.ANIM INDEF.NOM tiger
they will even approach the shelter of a tiger

ga u         əña    sədə  kunə  o   kili nimə́luyə
or INDEF.NOM animal other tough and wild approach
or of another strong and wild animal

o   wəyaxa        lu      əñali ayru      nzugi,
and FUT.AUX-3PL>3 DEF.ACC cub   of.3.ANIM devour
and they will devour their cubs,

ntɛ    ri      maxa          lo      mɛwɛnomɔ xa       esə      ɛru.
with.3 SUB.NOM NEG.AUX-3PL>3 DEF.NOM parent   this.ACC EMPH.AUX prevent
with the parents not being able to prevent it.


This sentence exhibits a typical if/then-construction. In English, we 
use a pair of conjunctions to express a conditional event, with 'if' at 
the beginning of the protasis and 'then' at the beginning of the 
apodosis. In Buruya Nzaysa, there's only a single conjunction ni, which 
is placed between the two clauses. In addition, one of the clauses must 
carry the conditional auxiliary pɔ-. Usually, the conditional auxiliary 
is placed in the protasis, as we see here, but that's not necessarily 
so; it mostly depends on which clause has the stronger semantic need to 
use a different auxiliary. It's very likely that things are more 
complicated than this though; I think I'll have to write about 
conditionals in more detail someday.

There are two other notable things in here, both of them in the last 
line. One of these is the word mɛwɛnomɔ 'parents', which is a dvandva 
compound ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvandva ) of mɛwɛ 'father' and 
omɔ 'mother'; the linking /-n-/ is a residue of the conjunction in the 
Ndak Ta phrase mebwe on omo. The second thing is that the sentence-final 
complement clause contains two auxiliaries, in initial position the 
inflected negative auxiliary maxa, and then in pre-final position the 
uninflected emphatic potential auxiliary esə, which acts as an adverbial 
modifier to the verb, highlighting the fact that the clause is not about 
actual prevention, but more fundamentally about the ability to prevent. 
Together, ma- and esə- provide the semantics of 'not able to'.

New words:
tilɛ (n.) 'tiger'. Borrowed from an unknown language of the Peninsular 
family; ultimately from Proto-Peninsular *ktiçi-laha (cf. Kibülʌiṅ 
ttīlʌ̄, Merneha cirilah, Vylessa ktīlḗ, Lotoka kila).



Pɔwaxa         ñalta  lu      ñavo  ŋkə  same       rapsə,
COND.AUX-3PL>3 indeed DEF.ACC adult same bring_down instead.3
Actually, if they catch the adults instead,

ni      wəyaxa        nzɔ     waru         skɛga    əño  o   tul;
if/then FUT.AUX-3PL>3 TOP.NOM 3PL.ANIM.ACC likewise kill and eat
they will kill and eat them just the same;

o   mah         tsa      ntɛvɔ́ve esə      rɛvle.
and NEG.AUX-3PL that.NOM in_vain EMPH.AUX resist
and they can't resist at all.


We see another if/then construction here, but it's syntactically 
parallel to the previous one so it's more interesting to talk about 
other things, for instance the deictic use of the attributive noun ŋkə 
'same, identical, -selfˈ (referring back to the same parents mentioned 
in the previous clause), or the similar anaphoric use of the topic 
marker nzɔ (referring back to the serpents, the main topic of the whole 
story) to disambiguate the two different 3rd person plural participants. 
Another detail I would like to draw attention to is that I changed the 
part of speech of rapsə for this text. The word used to be a 
conjunction, but it couldn't be used as a conjunction here because it 
has no overt object clause, so I redefined it as a preposition. 
Prepositions in Buruya Nzaysa are interpreted to have an implicit object 
when none is present overtly, and both here and on the only occasion 
that I've used the word before, a reading as 'instead of that' works out 
quite well.

New words:
same (v.) 'bring down, hunt down, slay, prey upon (usually said of 
animals)'. Etymology: Ndak Ta sapmi 'force'.
ntɛvɔ́ve (adv.) 'in vain; (in negated clauses) not at all'. This word is 
the gerund of bɔve 'fail', itself borrowed from Delta Naidda båve. The 
Ndak Ta etymon bambi survives natively in Buruya Nzaysa only in the verb 
əbabe 'be lucky', derived from a futilitive mood form erbambi 
'accidentally succeed' (lit. 'fail to fail').



Part Three coming up soon...

Jan

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March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
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August 2000, Week 3
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June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
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May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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