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CONLANG  December 2013, Week 3

CONLANG December 2013, Week 3

Subject:

Re: Life after Semivowels

From:

BPJ <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 19 Dec 2013 17:26:55 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (67 lines)

2013-12-19 15:46, Roman Rausch skrev:
>> and for the purposes of daughter languages how they would
>> return.
>
> On this point: Liquids seem to be a common source, especially
> the changes of a velarized [lˠ] > [w] is very widespread, for
> instance in Polish <ł>, but even in English I have a hard time
> hearing whether someone said _Holmes_ or _Houmes_, for example.
> And if the original language doesn't even have a [w] to begin
> with, the two would just sound the same for its speakers.
> Similarly, [lʲ] > [j] seems to have happened in Italian, e.g.
> L. _planus_ > _piano_ ['pjanɔ] and so on.

Portuguese too -- there /pj/ etc. went on to /tʃ/ > /ʃ/, which
evidently is also a way to lose semivowels.

Labial + /j/ > prepalatal happened in Tibetan too, and it grew
/w/ (actually /β̞/) from /db/. Both happen to occur in my Dharma
name, transliterated <ngag-dbang sbyin-pa> and pronounced along
the lines of [ˈŋɑːwɑ̃ˈtɕɪmbə], modulo tones, which no two
scholars seem to analyse the same anyway!

>
> On a more radical side of things, the Polynesian language
> Mwotlap has turned /r/ unconditionally into [j], which I find
> quite interesting.

That's actually a common 'fault' in small children's
pronunciation of Swedish. Nice to find an ANADEW for it actually
happening as a regular sound change!

>
> Apart from liquids, spirants can be a source as well: Faroese
> turns [ð] into [j] in presence of front vowels and into [w] in
> presence of back rounded vowels (e.g. Óðin = [ˈɔʊwɪn]), while
> in Icelandic [ɣ] > [j] close to front vowels seems to have
> taken place. So your [S~Z~x~G] phoneme may have a similar fate.

In Danish [ɣ] became [j] after front vowels and [w] after back
vowels not only once but twice! From the first round of lenitions
(early 2nd millennium CE) there are even some examples of [ð] >
[j], e.g. _Hleiðr_ > modern _Lejre_ (now /ˈla͡ɪʁə/ -- N.B. that
[ɛɪ] > [eː] prior to [ð] > [j]!

Early North Germanic also lost word-initial /j/ (cf. _*justa_ >
Swedish _ost_ 'cheese', loaned into Finnish > _juusto_) and then
grew initial /j/ again through the spectacular process known as
'breaking', where the vowel of the next syllable 'leaked' into a
syllable with short /e/, giving rise to a rising diphthong and
eventually a jV sequence: _*erþō > *eorþu > jǫrð_ 'earth',
genitive _*erþōz > *earþaz > jarðar_ _*ferþuz > *feorþuz >
fjǫrðr_ 'firth', gen. _*ferþauz > *fearþaz > fjarðar_ but
dative _*ferþiwi > *firþiwi > firði_, and just to show that
unlike Old English the trigger wasn't the following _*rC_:
_*meduz > mjǫðr_ 'mead'.

Swedish and Norwegian have had both [g] and [ɣ] before stressed
front vowels become [j], and Middle Indo-Aryan had the opposite
/j/ > /dʑ/ and /ʋ/ > /b/, as well as weakening intervocalic stops
to the point where they were written with the /j/ grapheme, which
may however have denoted hiatus by then.

BTW /j/ in my lect of Swedish is actually [ʑ], and even /iː/ is
actually [ʑ̩ː]! Go figure!

/bpj

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