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CONLANG  December 2013, Week 3

CONLANG December 2013, Week 3

Subject:

Re: Ṫirdonic and Her Daughters

From:

Alex Fink <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 21 Dec 2013 00:12:53 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (44 lines)

On Fri, 20 Dec 2013 19:29:45 -0800, Cosman246 <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> Dear Conlangers,
>
>For those unacquainted, here is Ṫirdonic:
>http://unnamedconworld.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/grammar2.pdf
>
>It is incredibly regular (a fault I'm trying to fix right now), as it is
>meant to be a reconstructed proto-language. I'm trying right now to form
>some daughter languages. I do know the basics of historical linguistics,
>having taken a class on it (specifically, on the development of German
>taught by a Dr. Joseph Voyles) Does anyone have suggestions for reading
>about modelling sound changes and other sorts of changes, or helpful tools
>(Zompist's Sounds comes to mind, but it uses ASCII...)?

Forgive me for giving some concrete thoughts about what might be done with Thirdonic, rather than abstract discussions.  I'm mostly not sure what good resources exist, in the large; I've picked up what I know from the list and from reading papers and whatnot, rather than an easy-to-point-to-text.  But one nice book I tripped over a few months ago for sound change is Kümmel's _Konsonantenwandel: Bausteine zu einer Typologie des Lautwandels und ihre Konsequenzen für die vergleichende Rekonstruktion_.

So, an overall suggestion: remember that the early changes to Thirdonic should be shared amongst several of the daughters (though perhaps to different extents).  One imagines the Thirdonic family will have begun to diversify as dialects of the same language before mutual intelligibility between the dialects was lost; the first sound changes will have occurred in this still-diversifying environment, and spread among the not-yet-separated daughters.  

I suggested several things to de-artificialise the morphology in your last thread.  For most of those, if you don't actually adopt them into the ("reconstructed") protolanguage, I expect they'd occur as changes on the way to the daughter languages anyway.

Bear semantic change in mind.  I don't know if the short unelaborated glosses in your Thirdonic documentation are intentionally so because, you imagine, more precision can't be reconstructed; that's fine, but do try to use better glosses for the "attested" daughterlangs at least.  

As for phonology, some first thoughts:

* Voiced aspirates are unstable.  They're probably less unstable when voiceless aspirates are present, which (unlike PIE) Thirdonic has, but they are even so.  The two main types of (proximal) developments of voiced aspirates are to modal voiced segments or to voiceless aspirates.  Breathiness lowers the pitch of the voice, so voiced aspirates can also leave a lowered tone behind when they change (especially if tone is already contrastive).  Or, if voiced aspirates are retained, they could do things like develop to [h\] in weak positions (as happened in Indic).

If you want to avoid mergers among the four consonant series, a few options would be 
- preserving the former contrast by the introduction of tone, as above
- the shift of [b_h b] to [b b_k] or [b b_<] (and parallelly for the other places of articulation)
- I can't quite cite precedent for the latter half of this, but structural parallellism would seem to suggest that if the voiceless aspirates go to affricates or fricatives, so could the voiced ones.  Or you could try [p p_h b b_h] > [p (p)f b p_h] (and parallelly) or similar.

* [h] will tend to be quick to disappear; if not [h] and [x] could well fall together (and the result could later disappear anyway).  In the coda you could have compensatory lengthening or stuff like that (though this is more common if length is already distinctive).

* In Indo-European the resonant consonants survived fairly well, but I suspect this was helped by their phonotactics, which might be slightly less of a preservative force in Thirdonic.  Even so, in IE prevocalic [j w] often disappeared or hardened to obstruents, which could happen here too; nonprevocalic [j w] are less likely to harden, but they're very likely to cause vowel colouring and perhaps disappear (via diphthongs).  Consonant+[j] is of course ripe for palatalisation.  Your lexicon has lots of velar+[w]; these may remain, being seen as phonologically unitary labiovelars, while something else happens to the other [w]s.

* As for the vowels, if <u> is in fact [u\] (and <a> [A]) as your romanisation chart suggests, then this [u\] can be expected to develop to [1] or [y] or [i] relatively readily.  (If it merges with [i] this will nòt tend to chain-shift out of the way.)  This leaves a gap at [u] which will want to be filled.  If Vw diphthongs or other sequences involving vowels and [w] were common enough (as perhaps they might be after some consonant lenition, e.g.), they might serve to provide a new [u]; otherwise you could do [o] > [u] (conditional or unconditional).  

* Complex onsets other than consonant+sonorant seem rare in your vocabulary, so these might well simplify away in various ways (usually loss of one of the consonants, though perhaps epenthesis, or conversion to a kind of onset cluster which is retained).  In general, if some combination which your phonotactics allows is under-exploited, a plausible development is that the few examples of it will be eliminated by some change tightening up the phonotactic restrictions.  

* It's not uncommon ttbomk for a new stress system to just outright replace an old one.  But the Thirdonic lexical stress could leave traces, especially if it is realised as a stress accent.  Most likely are various kinds of reduction (centralisation, loss, ...) of unstressed vowels; or conversely, if there are any "un-reduction" changes (peripheralisation, lengthening, breaking, ...) these may well happen only to stressed vowels.  Occasionally consonant changes will reflect the position of the stress too, with consonants next to the stress coming through "stronger" (e.g. Verner's law in Germanic, or one of the Finnic consonant gradations).  

Alex

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