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CONLANG  June 2014, Week 1

CONLANG June 2014, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Definition of a-priori/a-posteriori

From:

Herman Miller <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 7 Jun 2014 14:06:48 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (283 lines)

On 6/7/2014 11:20 AM, Jörg Rhiemeier wrote:
> Hallo conlangers!
>
> On Friday 06 June 2014 21:34:34 R A Brown wrote:
>
>> On 05/06/2014 14:21, BPJ wrote:
>>> IIUC the terms _a-priori_ and _a-posteriori_ as
>>> originally coined to describe auxlangs referred
>>> exclusively to whether their vocabulary was *derived by
>>> design, prominently, and consistently* from one or more
>>> natlangs or not,
>>
>> Are you sure that was once used exclusively of vocabulary?
>> Louis Couturat and Léopold Leau in their book "Histoire de
>> la langue universelle" (1903) define the terms thus:
>
> Couturat and Leau are of course defining authorities, at least
> historically, when it comes to auxlang classification.
>
>> A_PRIORI
>> "[les] projets qui, pour des raisons diverses, ne tiennent
>> aucun compte des langues naturelles, et qui sont des langues
>> originales, construites de toutes pièces."
>> (Projects which, for diverse reasons, do not take any
>> account of natural languages, and which are fully
>> constructed original languages).
>
> While this does not explicitly mentions first principles, it is
> quite clear that this definition of _a priori_ applies only to
> constructed languages designed without regard of natural
> languages.  This applies well to "philosophical" languages as
> well as to Solresol and similar schemes, but certainly not to
> such languages as Balaybalan or Quenya, which *do* take account
> of natural languages.

I think a distinction does need to be made between borrowing features 
from specific natural languages on the one hand (like Esperanto) and 
making a language that tries to conform to realistic models of natural 
language in general (like Quenya). If a new term is needed for this kind 
of language, then a new term is needed. Lumping Quenya into "a 
posteriori" just because it doesn't meet the criteria for being "a 
priori" is misguided. This is complicated a bit by the presence of a few 
words that look like actual borrowings (e.g. "tie" from a Finnish word 
meaning "road"), but I wouldn't call Quenya "a posteriori" solely from 
having a realistic grammar.

>> A_POSTERIORI
>> "[les] projets qui, prenant pour modèle les langues
>> naturelles (particulièrement les langues européennes),
>> s'efforcent de les imiter et leur empruntent presque tous
>> leurs éléments."
>> (Projects which, taking natural languages (particularly
>> European languages) as their model,  endeavor to imitate
>> them and borrow nearly all their elements from them).
>
> Certainly, Balaybalan and Quenya do take particular natural
> languages (Arabic, Turkish and Persian in B; Latin, Greek
> and Finnish in Q) as their models and could thus be considered
> _a posteriori_ even though they do not borrow nearly all their
> elements by the letter.  While the concrete shapes of their
> words and affixes may be wholly invented, the way these languages
> work, i.e. their phonology, morphology and syntax, is clearly
> influenced by particular natlangs and thus a posteriori!

The Finnish element in Quenya is apparent (more so the Welsh element in 
Sindarin). But although learning Finnish and Welsh can give you some 
insight into how Quenya and Sindarin were designed, it doesn't help you 
to understand Quenya and Sindarin. Certainly Tolkien's languages were 
inspired by the languages he knew, but they're not in the same category 
as Esperanto or Volapük (I don't know enough about Balaybalan to comment).

More to the point, Quenya and Sindarin are languages spoken by non-human 
people of a distant past. The idea that they could borrow features from 
languages that didn't even exist yet is not internally consistent with 
that history. So it seems clear that Tolkien borrowed features from 
natural languages for the purpose of realism, not because he wanted to 
make any sort of connection with those specific languages.

In much the same way, my own languages like Tirëlat have features that 
I've borrowed from what I know about natural human languages, but that 
doesn't make them a posteriori.

>> Doubtless Christophe will correct any errors in translations  :)
>>
>> Thus according to these two gentlemen it is not only the
>> vocabulary, but all elements of the language, i.e. its
>> morphology and syntax.  Thus in their definition an a_priori
>> language *takes no regard of any natural languages* but
>> constructs its vocabulary, morphology and syntax from
>> scratch.   While an a_posteriori language tries to imitate
>> natural languages and borrows nearly all its elements from
>> natlangs.
>
> And at least by "spirit", B and Q are closer to what C&L define
> as _a posterori_ than to what they define as _a priori_.
>
>> I must admit that this was the meaning of the two terms I
>> encountered sixty years ago, and I had not been aware that
>> there had been any change.
>>
>> According to this usage, which has more than a century of
>> tradition behind it, Quenya, for example, completely fails
>> the  criterion "do not take any account of natural
>> languages" and simply cannot be classified as a_priori_.  On
>> the other hand, it certainly imitates natural languages and
>> does, indeed, borrow elements from them.  The only way it
>> might be said to fall short of is in borrowing _nearly all_
>> its elements from natlangs.
>
> Yes - it falls somewhere in between.  Yet, it is IMHO, for the
> reasons I have laid out above, closer to an a posteriori than
> an a priori language.
>
>>> and I think that it's best to keep this as the strict
>>> sense of the terms,
>>
>> I most certainly think a (fairly) strict definition has to
>> be maintained, if they are to have any meaningful use.
>
> Yes.
>
>>        The
>> terms, as we know, are taken from epistemology and Chuck is
>> right in saying that no conlang actual fulfills the strict
>> epistemological meaning of a_priori.  He is doubtless also
>> correct in saying that the authors of a_priori conlangs, in
>> the sense defined by Couturat and Leau, were conditioned by
>> the cultural milieu of their times and, unconsciously at
>> least, by languages they had encountered.
>
> Indeed, no human being could devise a language that is
> *epistemologically* a priori - all of us have been exposed to
> languages (and other experiences relevant to the perception and
> creation of languages), and any language a human being could
> design must be influenced, if subconsciously, at least by the
> native language of the designer.  There simply is no _tabula
> rasa_.
>
> Even the "philosophical" languages of Dalgarno, Wilkins et al.
> *do* derive from human language in that they are speakable,
> have words and grammatical morphemes, etc.  A language designed
> such that it has *nothing* in common with natural languages
> would pretty certainly be unusable by humans.  It tells a lot
> that none of the _a priori_ schemes achieved any success.  They
> were just too difficult to handle.
>
>> Nevertheless, this usage has been around for a very long
>> time.
>
> Yes, and it is best not to deviate from it; otherwise, one
> gets into a quagmire of misunderstandings.
>
>> If (some) artlangers now redefine a_priori as "not
>> borrowing its vocabulary directly from natlangs", then that
>> is an innovation and, in view of the continuing use of the
>> older definition, it is confusing, as the present thread
>> has clearly shown.
>
> Fair.  It is a new and different usage, and a misfortunate one
> as it results in misunderstandings.  So we have two definitions
> of _a priori language_:
>
> 1. A language designed from scratch without regard to any
>     natural languages.
>
> 2. A language whose vocabulary and grammar are not based in their
>     substance on any natural languages.
>
> The first is in use among auxlangers; the second is in use among
> artlangers.  They are thus used in two different (though closely
> related) fields of discourse.  But because these two fields of
> discourse are so closely related, they are easily confused.

I think what we've got is two points on a continuum, but divided 
differently into two parts depending on one's point of view. For 
artlangers, the line is drawn closer to the "a posteriori" end. The 
confusion results mainly from not agreeing on where the line should be 
drawn.

So what we need is a third category, or a whole new scheme of 
classification.

> This is similar to the different usage of the term _naturalistic_
> among auxlangers and artlangers.  Again, the definition used by
> auxlangers is the older one, and misunderstandings may ensue.

I think in this case, it's artlangers using the word in its 
non-technical English meaning, not realizing that the word has a 
technical meaning that differs. Not being able to use ordinary English 
words is a bit inconvenient, but if there's a better word we could use, 
we might as well adopt it. What do you suggest?

> Yet, the usage among artlangers by now is pretty well established,
> too, and there is no practical way of getting rid of it.  One must
> live with the fact that the meaning of _a priori_ and _a posteriori_
> depends on context, I fear.
>
>> Nor am I the only one to be unaware of this redefinition.
>> Arika Okrent defines a_priori as: "_A priori_ languages are
>> completely created from scratch."
>
> And languages such as Quenya or Balaybalan are *not* completely
> created from scratch by modelled on natural languages.  Of course,
> the question is what "from scratch" really means here.

If you wish to bake an apple pie from scratch, you must first invent the 
universe. (Carl Sagan)

>> [snip]
>>
>>> ... otherwise e.g. Esperanto would be both at the same
>>> time, rendering the terms meaningless. I also think that
>>> obviousness does *not* constitute a criterion: Lojban and
>>> Volapük do have a-posteriori vocabularies even though
>>> that may not be immediately discernible.
>>
>> Yes, Couturat and Laeu do add a third category:_mixed_.
>> That is, languages where some element(s) is/are a_priori and
>> other(s) a_posteriori.  The example they like to give is
>> Volapük.
>
> Yes.  And Lojban is another example.  Its grammatical structure
> is clearly _a priori_ in C&L's sense (it is not derived from
> any natlang but based on a formal logic calculus), but its
> lexicon is derived from the vocabularies of a set of major
> natural languages and thus _a posteriori_.
>
>> Arika Okrent also accepts their categories of _a posteriori_
>> ("_A posteriori languages are based on existing natural
>> languages") and _mixed_ ("_Mixed_ languages generally make
>> use of roots from natural languages in combination with
>> endings and other elements fashioned according to the _a
>> priori_ categorization technique).  But she adds a fourth:
>> _other_.
>>
>> Of this fourth category she writes; "Throughout history, the
>> purpose of language invention has for the most part been to
>> improve on natural language and create a universal language
>> for real world use. But sometimes, and increasingly more
>> commonly, inventors make languages for artistic purposes
>> only, crafting languages to satisfy a vision of what a
>> language should be. These projects may incorporate elements
>> of a priori, mixed, or a posteriori strategies, but they
>> belong in a category of their own."
>>
>> In other words, her "other" category is 'artlangs'!
>
> Yep!
>
>> Needless to say, she places Quenya there   :)
>>
>> When I see Quenya designated as "a priori" I wince because
>> it counter to more than a century of use of the term _a
>> priori_; then I collapse in disbelieving laughter because,
>> as a Latinist, to see Quenya described a _a *priori*_ is so
>> bizarre!
>
> I understand that notion, and have felt for a long time that
> Quenya is too close to certain European languages at least "in
> spirit" to really count as a priori!  Yet, it is an example of
> what is often called "a priori" among artlangers.

I think the problem is the idea that everything fits into one of these 
two categories. From an artlanger's point of view, if it's not derived 
from a natural language, the "a posteriori" category isn't a good fit, 
so it gets lumped into the other category. Adding a middle category 
(that isn't "mixed") would be a good idea.

>> Artlangs are, are they not, works of _art_?  It seems to me
>> just as bizarre to discuss whether Quenya is a_priori or
>> a_posteriori as it is to discuss whether Botticelli's "Birth
>> of Venus" or Beethoven's 5th symphony is a_priori or
>> a_posteriori.
>
> Fair.  Couturat's and Leau's definitions simply do not apply
> well here because the language is of a very different *nature*
> than the languages C&L were considering.
>
> --
> ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
> http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
> "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1

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October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
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September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
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April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
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September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
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August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
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February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
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December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
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July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
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June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
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November 2001, Week 3
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November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
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October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
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May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
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March 2001, Week 3
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March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
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December 2000, Week 3
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December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
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November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
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October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
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June 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
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March 2000, Week 3
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March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
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July 1999, Week 5
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July 1999, Week 3
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June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
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March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
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February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
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January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
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October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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