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CONLANG  June 2014, Week 2

CONLANG June 2014, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Origin of ejectives (was: Coarticulated ejectives?)

From:

Zach Wellstood <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 14 Jun 2014 09:59:48 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (93 lines)

If anyone is interested, the dissertation "The Synchronic and Diachronic
Phonology of Ejectives" addresses this is tremendous detail and has a bonus
chapter on PIE glottalic theory!

Zach
On Jun 14, 2014 6:59 AM, "Jörg Rhiemeier" <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> Hallo conlangers!
>
> On Sunday 08 June 2014 14:08:05 J P wrote:
>
> > > >Articulation in three places simultaneously might be a bit too much
> > > >like hard work.
> > >
> > > You think?   I wondered about that but dismissed it, given the great
> > > amount of carefully-coordinated choreography that has to go on to
> > > articulate much of anything.  I mean, to make [w_k] (creaky [w])
> > > involves the same three articulators working simultaneously, and
> > > there are certainly languages with [w_k] (UPSID knows seventeen).
> > >
> > > Alex
> >
> > It's probably not an issue of effort. It's that all speech sounds
> consist of
> > modulating an airflow generated by various mechanisms, and this concept
> is
> > trying to pull off too many things at that all at once.
> >
> > Once you have an ejective [p'] arranged, there are no less than two
> closures
> > in place: the buccal one enhancing the flow of air in or out of the
> mouth
> > cavity altogether, the glottal one enhancing the pulmonic airflow &
> used to
> > create a glottalic airstream mechanism to feed into the 1st closure.
> Adding
> > a velar closure between them, though, does pretty much nothing. It
> cannot
> > be used as a stop mechanism, because the labial closure blocks any way
> of
> > releasing it; it cannot be used for an airstream mechanism, since we've
> > already mandated that that will be left to the glottal closure.
> >
> > It's possible to arrange a situation where the labial closure gets
> released
> > first, then the velar one, but this is just a cluster [pk'] with an
> > unreleased first member, not really a singular consonant.
> >
> > It's also possible to throw in a velaric airstream method, but this
> will
> > then be a glottalized bilabial click, not a labial-velar ejective.
>
> As others have said here, ejectives are *technically*
> coarticulations of a glottal stop with another speech sound.
> A coarticulated ejective would thus be a coarticulation
> involving *three* simultaneous articulatory gestures, and
> thus rare.
>
> This poses the question, where do ejectives come from?  They
> *could* arise from clusters involving the glottal stop or
> something similar (how about a future Danish where ejectives
> emerge from stød?).  But there are other pathways.  In those
> Eastern Armenian dialects which have them, ejectives are the
> regular development of voicless unaspirated stops, probably
> under influence from neighbouring Georgian.  I happened to
> find something in Michael Fortescue's 1998 book, _Language
> Relations across Bering Strait_, where he discusses the origin
> of ejectives in Itelmen, an indigenous language of Kamchatka
> and the only Chukotko-Kamchatkan language with ejectives.  In
> Itelmen, ejectives emerged from various clusters.  Examples:
>
> c'e 'go into' < *c@Gæl-
> c'it 'bow' < *t@rit@ri
> @mc' 'bitter' < *(@)mcj@- < *cemj@-
> k'e- 'get used to' < *kæv-
> k'- comitative case < *k(C)- < *kænm@-
> sic'eN 'left' < *riNceN < *r@Nac@N
> c'aq 'four' < *N@raq
>
> (from Fortescue 1998:40-41)
>
> Any discussion of the origin of ejectives also needs to take
> into account that back ejectives such as /k'/ and /q'/ are
> somewhat more common than front ones such as /t'/, let alone
> /p'/ which is missing from many languages that have ejectives
> at other places of articulation.
>
> --
> ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
> http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
> "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
>

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