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CONLANG  May 2015, Week 5

CONLANG May 2015, Week 5

Subject:

Re: Dealing with Semantic Drift in your Diachronics

From:

BPJ <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 31 May 2015 15:56:00 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (143 lines)

Den 2015-05-31 15:14, R A Brown skrev:
> Indeed, the non-survival of either _puer_ or _puella_ seems
> slightly surprising.  While French keeps a Latin derived
> _jeune fille_ or _fillette_ for "girl" it has the non-Latin
> derived _garçon_ for "boy".  All the others have various
> innovations.  Obvious scope for some imagination when I get
> around to Britainese for "boy" and "girl."     :)

As I wrote the other day Rhodrese has the following,
all ultimately from *PUTULUS

petx(e) 'small'

pitxí 'child'

petxelle 'girl'

petxot 'boy'


I wrote a small essay about that root once, which used to be online:
(I hope the line wrapping doesn't become too crazy!)


On the etymology of Ibero-Romance _pequeño_ and cognates

Since the issue has recently come up both in a private correspondence
and on this list I looked up my old notes concerning that mysterious
Romance root for 'small, little'. The most likely story goes something
like this:

In Latin there was a word pūtus, meaning '(small) boy'. In Vulgar Latin
this word had a variant *pŭttus, since there was a general tendency for
V:C and VC: (long vowel + single consonant and short vowel + long/double
consonant) to alternate with each other, and then by analogy or dialect
mixture a third variant *pūttus with both the stressed vowel and the
following consonant long1[1].

First of all the well-known Latin diminutive ending -UL- was added to
*puttus, giving *puttulus, which soon was contracted to *puttlus, which
Romanicists would conventionally write as *putt’lus. Now there was a
very strong tendency in Vulgar Latin for an /l/ which formed a cluster
with another consonant to become a palatal [ʎ] (like the older
pronunciation of Spanish _ll_ or Italian _gli_). As we see from the
various reflexes of planta in the Romance languges — It. _pianta_, Sp.
_llanta_, Fr. _plante_, Ptg. _chanta_ — the consonant + [ʎ] could change
in various ways: it could change into consonant + /j/ (Italian) which
could in turn change into /tj/ and further into various reflexes of that
combination, or indeed revert to or remain consonant + l (French).2[2].

Next the palatal(ized) combination [cʎ] changed the preceding vowel /ʊ/
into /ɪ/. *pŭttulus had now become something which may be written
*pĭttʲlʲus. Now it is a well known fact that the combination *TL, or
rather its palatalized outcome *tʲlʲ [cʎ] was felt to be especially
difficult to VL speakers: it usually changed to — or was
indistinguishable from — cl > *kʲlʲ 3[3], and Vulgar Latin speakers
of central Italy, who tended to preserve or restore the -ulus ending, at
some point retrofitted *pittʲlʲus to *picculus, whence Italian
_piccolo_.

Since the diminutive ending -ul- lost its meaning or vanished by sound
change, and because people still felt the need to reinforce the sense of
littleness, the thus obtained root variants
*pitl/*pittʲ/*pikkʲ/*pikkl and even the further back-formations
*pitt and *pikk, all meaning 'small' or 'small thing/being' could and
usually were refurbished with further diminutive endings, giving the
French variants and derivations _petit, petiot, pichot, pichoun_, and
Sard _pizeɖɖu_ < *pitʲellu, but above all *pittʲīnus, and in Iberia
*pikkinnus 4[4], although Rumanian also has the suffixless
back-formation _piţu_.5[5]

The different reflexes show a wide variation in the sounds corresponding
to the final consonant of the root: Sard _pizinnus_ [ts], Italian
dialects _pizzinnu_ [tts] and _piccinnu_ [ttʃ], French _petit_ [tt] > [t]
6[6], _pichot_ [tʃ] > [ʃ], Sp. _peque?o_, Ptg. _pequeno_ [kk], It.
_piccolo_, no doubt because this sound could be palatalized or
depalatalized, and then either to a dental/alveolar or a velar, and
lastly it could even remain or be restored to a cluster. Last but not
least these palatalizations and back- formations happened at different
times and places, and therefore gave different results. The absence of
[ʎ] reflexes no doubt is because the consonant was usually long or
double. It has also been thought that the frequent use of diminutives in
talk by and to babies has led to sometimes anomalous sound developments.
For this word if anyone one is prepared to believe that!

Benct Philip Jonsson <[log in to unmask]> Wed, 27 Aug 2008

------------------------------------------------------------------------


Footnotes

1.  

    The most well-known example of this is the latin word for 'whole'
    tōtum. Spanish _todo_ is a regular reflex of the Classical form with
    V:C while French _tout_ goes back to *tottum while Italian _tutto_
    goes back to a mixed form *tūttum, which was due to the fact that
    'long' Ō [o] and 'short' Ŭ [ʊ] interchanged — and indeed usually
    merged — in Vulgar Latin. Another example is the VL diminutive
    ending *-ittum/*-īttum, where French _- et_ and Italian _-etto_ must
    go back to the form with a short vowel while Spanish _-ito_ must go
    back to a form with both a long vowel and a long consonant.
    Logically a form *pūtum with a long vowel and a short consonant must
    have existed, but I don't know if it is anywhere attested; it is
    notable that this form would have coincided with a common variant of
    the past participle ending![back][7]

2.  

    The reflex [ʎ] (which could develop on to [j] and various further
    devlopments of that sound, like Spanish [x]) is especially common
    between two vowels, as seen in the reflexes of spec(u)lum:
    Portuguese _espelho_, Catalan _espill_, Sard _ispiyu_, Spanish
    _espejo_, though forms like Italian _specchio_ and Frulan _spieili_
    also exist.[back][8]

3.  

    Whence *vet(u)lus > veclus (attested in "Appendix Probi") > It.
    _vecchio_, Fr. _vieil_, though Provençal _espitlori_, if indeed from
    *spec(u)lorium, forms an interesting exception and evidence that the
    development could go both back and forth![back][9]

4.  

    The suffix variants *-īnus -and *-innus are of course a further
    instance of V:C/VC: variation![back][10]

5.  

    It should be noted that the Rumanian word _puţin_ is an regular
    reflex of pūtīnus, remarkable only in that it must be an early loan
    from another Romance variety where -īnus remained productive. Those
    things happen too![back][11]

6.  

    If the Vulgar Latin diminutive ending *-ittus/*-īttus is itself
    developed out of -ic(u)lus/*-icc(u)lus the word _petit_ shows the
    same type of development double, and also illustrates that at some
    times and places *tl and *cl indeed merged as [cʎ].[back][12]

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November 2005, Week 5
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November 2005, Week 3
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October 2005, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 5
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June 2003, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 1
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December 2002, Week 1
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October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
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September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
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June 2002, Week 3
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April 2002, Week 5
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March 2002, Week 5
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December 2001, Week 5
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April 2001, Week 5
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April 2001, Week 3
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April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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