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CONLANG  June 2015, Week 1

CONLANG June 2015, Week 1

Subject:

Naturalistic Grammars

From:

Jeffrey Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 1 Jun 2015 11:28:28 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (132 lines)

Recently, on the Conlang forum, there was a thread that mentioned, in the
midst of a different discussion, the question of whether or not the grammar
of a conlang was naturalistic. This is a question I have pondered for some
time, as I am much more fascinated with the syntax and morphology of a
language, than with its phonology or its conculture.

When conlangers speak of naturalistic conlangs, it seems to me that they
speak primarily of the way the language sounds, and of whether the
phonology has the “feel” of having developed naturally over a period of
time, because of the judicious application by its creator of fictional
diachronic sound changes.

I think that conlangs grammars can also have a naturalistic “feel” as
opposed to an artificial one. I cannot define what makes this so, other
than it is a personal, subjective, aesthetic sense of the language’s
structure, which I can perceive if I attempt to use the language for speech
or translation. So, what follows is purely my own personal opinions of the
naturalism of the grammars of various conlangs.

I. Relexes

Although everyone disparages relexes, one thing about them is that their
grammars are naturalistic. After all, it is just a relexification of a
natlang, and a natlang, by definition, has a natural grammar.

II. Mathematical Grammars and Engelangs

Any grammar based on predicate logic, or computer science, or any branch of
mathematics, does not have a naturalistic feel. Examples are Fith, Loglan,
Lojban, and Ithkuil (sorry JQ). This does not mean that these conlangs are
inconsequential or unworthy in any way, merely that when I try to say
something in that language, it doesn’t feel like I’m speaking a language,
it’s rather like I’m trying to solve an algebra problem in my head. I am
aware that are a some people who can speak Lojban more or less fluidly, but
there are also some people who can quickly solve algebra problems in their
heads and that doesn’t make algebra a language.

I suspect that my perception is based on the fact (or supposition) that the
parts of the brain that handle language are different than the parts that
handle mathematics.

You will note that these are all engelangs. In fact, I cannot think of a
single engelang that has a naturalistic grammar. But that’s not the point
of an engelang, anyway, is it?

III. Auxlangs

The most common auxlangs are based on European languages. Their grammars
are really a regularization and simplification of a Romance grammar, or at
least of an IE grammar. I find these extremely easy. I can read texts in
auxlangs I have never studied. And I find their grammars to have a very
naturalistic feel.

Now, one could retort, that because English is my native language, or
because I speak several European languages, Esperanto and the like feel
naturalistic to me because their grammars are similar to English or
Spanish. But, I have also learned Arabic and Hawaiian, and the grammars of
those languages are decidedly not IE in structure, yet their grammars feel
natural to me. I have also studied Japanese, Chinese, and Blackfoot (though
I don’t claim more than a smattering of knowledge of them), and the
grammars of those languages, too, feel natural.

There is something about natural language grammars, their combination of
features or their structure, which, in my opinion, “kicks” the processing
of the language into Broca’s or Wernicke’s area (or wherever), rather than
the part of the brain that handles general symbolic manipulation.

IV. Minimalist Languages

I love Toki Pona. Thank you, SL! But it doesn’t have a naturalistic
grammar. It’s a toy grammar.

V. Exolangs, Written-only langs, or any Non-sequential lang

Human language is oral/aural and is produced by a single channel (one
larynx, one channel). Any conlang that doesn’t conform to those
restrictions ends up with a non-naturalistic grammar, in my opinion. But,
maybe that’s part of the point of an exolang, to come up with an “inhuman”
grammar, isn’t it?

VI. Really great conlangers

Okay, this is totally subjective, but just as there are great artists among
composers and novelists, there are great artists among conlangers. Through
a combination of innate talent, linguistic-aesthetic sensitivity, and a
perseverance of effort, they have developed beautiful conlangs whose
phonology and grammar are both admirably naturalistic. I can think of only
two people in this category. One is Tolkien; the other is living and has
gone pro. But even if you’re not Mozart it doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy or
create music.

VII. How to create a naturalistic grammar for your conlang

Let’s suppose you want to have a naturalistic grammar for your new conlang.
How could you go about it? Here’s a recipe that I’m pretty sure will work
(though there’s surely other ways to bake this cake):

1. Study the grammars of natural languages and choose grammatical features
that you especially like. Make a list.

2. Eliminate inconsistencies. If you like the head-final and SOV of
Japanese, but also the case affixes and free-form word order of Latin,
you’ve got to choose one.

3. Cross off 40% of the remaining features. Almost for sure, you have too
many features on your list. We wouldn’t be conlangers if we didn’t like
interesting language features. Take out 2/5 of your features (or at least
1/3). You can incorporate them in another conlang.

4. Now, build and describe your core grammar.

5. Sprinkle with a few irregularities for that diachronic zest. Everyone
savors a few suppletions and portmanteaus. Don’t over-spice.

6. Use your conlang. Speak in it. Write in it. If it doesn’t feel right,
then reflect on what went wrong and try again.

And so, what I am saying here is that if you incorporate a grammatical
feature that isn’t present in any natlang, then you probably have
destroyed, or compromised, the naturalism of the grammar of your conlang.
If your objective is to engineer a really unusual grammar with heretofore
unseen features, that’s fine, but if you wish to produce a naturalistic
grammar, then it’s more prudent to stick with the tried-and-true features
of natlang grammars. This belief is based on my intuition (admittedly
unfounded) that the corpus of the world’s natural languages contain among
themselves virtually every possible natural grammatical feature of human
language.

Comments? Opinions? Disagreements? (No rants, please)

Jeffrey

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