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CONLANG Home

CONLANG Home

CONLANG  August 2015, Week 1

CONLANG August 2015, Week 1

Subject:

labial+/j/ and Britainese

From:

R A Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 4 Aug 2015 08:42:53 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (104 lines)

WARNING: this email contains phonology.

After a bit of research across other languages besides
Romancelangs, I find that although some languages do have
palatalized labials, there is a crosslinguistic constraint
against them.

In many languages, as we know, palatalized dentals/alveolars
and velars are not uncommon. In some languages (e.g. Early
Indo-Iranian) it is restricted to velars and labiovelars,
while in others (e.g. Middle Indo-Aryan) it is restricted to
dentals.  It seems to be 'universal', however, that no
language restricts palatalization to labials.    :)

Where palatalization of labials has arisen through
diachronic phonological development, languages seem to
employ a number of strategies to depalatalize them, e.g.

1. Either resist the palatalization or decompose it as
labia1+/j/, e.g.
Spanish _rabia_ /rabja/ <- VL *rabja (= Classical _rabiēs_)
"rage, madness"

2. Simply depalatalize, leaving just plain ol' labials, e.g.
Tocharian B /piɕ/, Tocharian A /pɨɲ/ <- Proto-Tocharian
*/pʲɨɲɕɨ/ "five"

3. "Glide metathesis" or rather, depalataization leaving
/j/ to form a diphthong with the preceding vowel, e.g.
Spanish _sepa_ <- *_saipa_ <- *sapʲa <- VL *sapja (=
Classical _sapiat_) "that s/he know" [subjunctive]

4. Palatalized labial becomes a plain labial + a palatal
consonant, e.g.
Greek _klepto:_ <- *klepco: <- *klepʲo: <-- Proto-Greek
*klepjo:  "I steal"
Romantsch _sapcia_ /'sapʧa/ <- *sapʲa <- VL *sapja

5. Insertion of a palatalized lateral with depalatalization
of the labial, e.g.
Russian _lʲublʲu_ <- *ljubjo: <- Proto-Slav *lewbhjo: "I love"

Strategies 2 & 5 are not found in the Romance languages
AFAIK; the rest are.

Central Italy remained the most conservative, retaining
labial+/j/ and resisting palatalization (and geminating the
plosive for good measure :), e.g.
rabbia <- VL *rabja
sappia <- *sapja

We find this also in Spanish _rabia_ which is identical in
pronunciation to the Vulgar Latin original!

But Spain poses some problems because as we saw above we
also find examples of strategy 3.  But, the situation is
even weirder, e.g.
_jibia_ /xibja/ <- *ʃeibja <- *sebʲa <- *sepʲa <- VL sepja
(= Classical sēpia) "cuttlefish".
This shows a combination of 1 and 3, with lenition /p/ -> /b/.

The varying treatments we find in Spanish must be due to
dialect variation.  Just as English is based upon the late
Middle English of the London area but contains elements from
other dialects, so in the Iberian peninsular while Spanish
is based on Castilian Romance we may expect elements of
other regional dialects.  What I suspect we are seeing are
traces of varying treatments of labial+/j/ across the
Iberian peninsula, ranging from the conservative stretegy 1,
through 1+3, to 3 alone and to what we find in Portuguese
_raiva_ <- *rabja, _saiba_ <- *sapja etc, namely "glide
inversion" with lenition of labial plosive.

In northern and central Gaul, in Raetia and in both north
and south Italy we find strategy 4 prevails, i.e.
Palatalized labial becomes a plain labial + a palatal
consonant.
(The dialects of southern Gaul appear to have been caught
between the developments in the Iberian peninsula to the
south and what was happening in the rest of Gaul.)

This would suggest that Britainese was likely to have
adopted strategy 4 likewise.  However, way over on the
eastern fringe of the Romance speaking world we find that
Romanian adopted strategy 3, without the lenition we find in
Portuguese, e.g.
_roib_ <- *robju <- VL *rʊbjʊ (= Classical _rubeum_)
"reddish-brown"

So might "glide-metathesis" be a fringe phenomenon as BPJ
suggested?

Still haven't quite yet 'discovered' what happened in
Britainese, but inclining towards 4.

-- 
Ray
==================================
http://www.carolandray.plus.com
==================================
Nid rhy hen neb i ddysgu.
There's none too old to learn.
[WELSH PROVERB]

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