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CONLANG  August 2015, Week 1

CONLANG August 2015, Week 1

Subject:

Re: Alien language research

From:

Daniel Demski <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 5 Aug 2015 08:11:15 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

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Patrik,

> I thought this _was_ the principle of indifference. If there are no further assumptions, each combination should have a 1/6 chance, right?

The Principle of Indifference only applies in the absence of other beliefs, or as Wikipedia puts it, "if the n possibilities are indistinguishable except for their names". You *could* believe that S, O, and V aren't distinguishable in any meaningful way here, and so apply the POI.

I guess the way I originally phrased things, what I was saying was that we're making an interesting set of assumptions in order to get to a point where we can apply the Principle of Indifference. (Here's the paragraph I'm referring to: "[...] by choosing three primary parts you're making a choice. [...] Or, even if all languages do have subjects, objects, and verbs (or, we add the exceptions to the model), there's still more than logical necessity behind this. The real assumption being made is that there's a connection between the description and the languages we see in the world.") If I may be a bit redundant, I'll just stress: my purpose is to argue logical necessity doesn't get us very far.

Maybe there's a more direct, more informative way of making my argument. If what I say is true, I should be able to offer an example: some alternative description of the situation which, when combined with the Principle of Indifference, contradicts the 1/6 probability that very same principle gives us when we describe things in terms of word order, S, O, and V.

Fortunately for me, examples seem to be close to hand. If we ask ourselves what the highest-level objects in sentences are, one person might state "why, subjects and predicates of course!"

If we apply POI directly to subject and predicate, we would have two possibilities, SP and PS, each at 0.5 expected rate of occurrence. Now I'm going to add one more assumption. Suppose we ask this person about O and V, and they reply that certainly, predicates consist of verbs and sometimes objects, but that sometimes - let's assume half the time - the verb will be separated from the object.

This gives SP and PS and OSV and VSO, each with 1/4 probability. Of course the P is either VS or SV, so there are six possibilities, but SOV and SVO each are probability 1/8, and same with OVS and VOS.

If instead we start out saying SV and VS are each 0.5, and that O can be added in the beginning, middle or end, then we get that same 1/6th number as before. So the results depend on what order POI is applied in, and also which possibilities we consider fundamental at each step.

Hopefully that's an OK example. I believe there would be better examples - descriptions of the situation which diverge even more from the 1/6th estimate, and ones a little more likely to actually be used. I'm not sure how to derive these particular probabilities from something like construction grammar, but it seems like one could, and it seems like the answer wouldn't be 1/6th, 1/6th, ... .

To put this back in the original context (and, I'm going to change the wording a bit, in order to give you something to correct if I've misunderstood): Suppose we are a linguist who accepts the assumption that S, O, and V are logical necessities present in any language. It seems to me such a linguist still might believe a theory such as the simple "subject, predicate" model which doesn't make direct reference to S, O, and V, instead having subjects, predicates, and predicate arguments of various types (including objects). So when they calculate what to expect they get something like the 1/8, 1/8, 1/8, 1/8, 1/4, 1/4 that I did.

Then - continuing with the old example - we suppose they go out into the field and find that all languages they observe are SVO. Certainly it's agreed that this doesn't prove there's a biological factor. Certainly it's agreed that in such a situation, the linguist needs to change their opinions about something; an explanation is necessary. Fundamentally, the linguist could believe that there is some physical explanation, or that the theory which they used to get the probabilities was wrong.

Of course physical explanations can include something biological, historical, cultural, etc. -- all the options we've brought up before. And if none of those seem to be available, the linguist pretty much must question the theory.

On the other hand, what if we go out into the field and observe something close to the frequencies we predicted? We learn something in that case too, in a way. It has to be explained by something like the "drifting changeability" I was mentioning before, or any process which could ensure exploration of the space of possibilities. So we learn something more specific than "my theory was fine". We learn that the theory we believe in must have something to do with the actual exploration process. Languages must randomly, or at least evenly, switch whether subject or predicate comes first in sentences; and it would be reasonable to suppose that when the switch occurs, the object and the verb move together (or some other process preserves this correspondence, e.g. they never move together).

I must be getting my mind too wrapped up in my own ideas - I can't imagine a single point above that anyone would disagree with. I'm sure someone can remedy that. :)

> A lot of things bear Chomsky's name, but people like Pullum argue they're not his - apparently Chomsky "forgot" to mention in Syntactic Structures that he was actually (mis)citing Emil Post's work; see http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~gpullum/CreationMyths.pdf and http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~gpullum/onSyntacticStructures.pdf

Thanks for the Chomsky links!

It's not exactly a fallacy to bring evidence for UG from syntax. If there's (biological) UG, there has to be syntax; therefore if there's syntax, *and* we don't already believe there has to be syntax for some other reason, then we must take that as some degree of evidence for UG. For example if there are three possibilities, 1) UG causing syntax, 2) logical necessity causing syntax, 3) no syntax whatsoever, then finding that syntax exists eliminates 3 and makes 1 and 2 both more believable.

Not sure what you're saying with the Darwin stuff. But then, I've always preferred to think of the Modern Synthesis as more of an addition than a change (ignoring Darwin's gemmule theory, because Darwin knew it was just a guess). Even e.g. the Neutral Theory doesn't disagree with Darwin, it just adds that in the absence of selection, genetic drift will lead to traits becoming dominant in a population (and states that this is common).

If there's room for angels and devils in the current theory, there are much better places for them than explaining random variation. Better to argue that the equilibrium part of punctuated equilibrium needs more explanation; or that observed evolution has a better 'memory' of past solutions than models predict; or that convergent evolution happens more frequently than we can currently explain (or less frequently, I don't know). The selection and variation stuff ... that seems much more like logical necessity.

>> As I understand it, though, the original presentation was based on the infinite nature of language. So it's very much like saying people can't have learned about numbers just from education. There are infinitely many numbers so learning by example can't work. Therefore we must have some innate component which understands numbers.
> I definitely agree. However people are essentially animals so whatever components we have are animal components and shared with other species. [...] Anyway, dogs have processing power for language and math, and so do people, but more. This does in my mind suggest that math and language are based on measureable reality (such as sound waves and many others).

I meant my argument there as a bit of a reductio ad absurdum! Well, sort of. We can make exactly the same argument for other infinite mathematical things, like the set of all algebraic structure, the class of all sets, the category of all categories, or even ones which haven't been discovered yet. Something can be infinite but reduce to a few simple rules; and this is true of all these examples.

So, I would argue, there is not something biologically shared which allows us to learn numbers or these other mathematical objects; and I feel fairly confident saying there's nothing physical about the world that constrains them either, and if other Universes exist, 1+1 = 2 will be true in them. But intelligences in other Universes, or on other planets, might not happen to decide numbers are very useful.

But I do think *most* intelligent species would use numbers; and perhaps most would understand the concept of sound.

> Complex facial expressions might be too similar to sign language. Animals (including people) do read a lot of information from body language and that seems to be enough for the overwhelming majority of mammals, but it doesn't seem to build up to a syntactic language. The immune system idea is interesting; what if alien communication could be chemical, and in that way quite precise (e.g. inducing visions in the receiving brain)? In that case Chomsky's UG would seem quite plausible - and any kind of syntax quite unnecessary. I think we come back to the point where Chomskyan theories are more suitable for describing "alien languages" than human and computer languages.

I'll resist the temptation to try and construct another scenario. But, I take it you don't buy my idea that they could have "no symbols" in the sense that they can't produce the movements without actually having the thought? That inability to lie, or ever stop talking actually, is one of the main differences from sign language. The other is the "hash" thing, the idea that within certain tolerances, each unique brain state has a unique representation. (The "tolerances" would differ in different parts of the signaling mechanism, but that's just a detail.)

 Actually I don't think chemical communication is much better at being precise. The immune system uses it to differentiate between healthy and abnormal cells, which means that the entire space of normal, healthy cell behavior is represented by one signal. 

Oh, but suppose we had an alien species with such precise communication! It seems like a biological universal grammar could provide the uniformity necessary to allow that sort of brain-to-brain transfer. But it could also be that the aliens learn after birth to think exactly in the same manner as those around them, in order to have the thoughts transfer in a meaningful way. It might be just as confusing to figure out whether UG is true on their world as on ours!

Another interesting point: in order for such telepathy-like communication to enable discussion of some sort, the creatures would need to be able to receive each others' thoughts, but hold them apart from their own thoughts; that is, *understand* what the other is thinking, as opposed to just being externally forced to have the exact same thought (hallucinate the same sights, etc.). But this implies there's some types of experiences which can't be telepathically transferred: especially the experience of receiving someone else's thoughts and comparing them with your own.

...I'll keep this email from getting any longer by not expanding on that; hopefully it's halfway clear. Thanks for the interesting responses, and sorry I'm so longwinded!

-Daniel

-----Original Message-----
From: Constructed Languages List [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On Behalf Of Patrik Austin
Sent: Monday, August 03, 2015 6:35 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: Alien language research

> Whether S, O, and V are fundamental is a bit beside the point. I argue that weighing the six arrangements of them equally is making an interesting set of assumptions, beyond the "principle of indifference" alone. 

I thought this _was_ the principle of indifference. If there are no further assumptions, each combination should have a 1/6 chance, right?
 
> I definitely misstepped there, especially using the word "just" - Darwin did not "just" argue some physical basis of heritability existed. But I still think it's an apt comparison; Chomsky did not just argue for a language organ or language module in the human brain. He also did some nice math, certainly either creating the mathematical objects which bear his name or bringing them to prominence. 

A lot of things bear Chomsky's name, but people like Pullum argue they're not his - apparently Chomsky "forgot" to mention in Syntactic Structures that he was actually (mis)citing Emil Post's work; see http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~gpullum/CreationMyths.pdf and http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~gpullum/onSyntacticStructures.pdf 

In any case it's a fallacy to bring evidence for UG from syntax. We can argue that if there's UG, there has to be syntax, but we can't argue that if there's syntax there has to be (a biological) UG. Whether UG is hard-wired in the brain is a cerebral issue so that's where you'll have to look for it. As long as there's no biological evidence, Chomsky's syntactic work is logically unrelated to his UG.  
 
>> Actually Darwin's theory turned out to be wrong. Theorists before Darwin knew that breeding played an important role, but they thought it couldn't explain it all thus leaving room for God's guidance. Origin of Species demonstrated how natural selection functions as a single mechanism behind evolution thus making creation redundant. Later biologists however found that this mechanism alone is too slow to explain what happens in reality; mutations are also important (and so the "God factor" might still be valid… ;) 
 
> What is this based on? Darwin wrote a whole book on variation after the Origin (but which he originally intended to include), which even contains a brief argument against the idea that God produces the variation. Darwin was very conscious that variation was necessary. 

What I said was just based on what my wife told me - she's PhD in genetics. However it seems Darwin was even more mistaken in his later book, see http://www.wired.com/2014/12/fantastically-wrong-thing-evolution-darwin-really-screwed/

But more importantly: "We have learned much since Darwin's time and it is no longer appropriate to claim that evolutionary biologists believe that Darwin's theory of Natural Selection is the best theory of the mechanism of evolution. I can understand why this point may not be appreciated by the average non-scientist because natural selection is easy to understand at a superficial level. It has been widely promoted in the popular press and the image of "survival of the fittest" is too powerful and too convenient. - - During the first part of this century the incorporation of genetics and population biology into studies of evolution led to a Neo-Darwinian theory of evolution that recognized the importance of mutation and variation within a population. Natural selection then became a process that altered the frequency of genes in a population and this defined evolution. This point of view held sway for many decades but more recently the classic Neo-Darwinian view has been replaced by a new concept which includes several other mechanisms in addition to natural selection. Current ideas on evolution are usually referred to as the Modern Synthesis (…)" http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/modern-synthesis.html
It could be that all random variation can never be completely explained scientifically, and that leaves room for the God factor, or Intelligent Design. Or the Satan factor if you like - its most commonplace consequences being miscarriages and disabilities.
> As I understand it, though, the original presentation was based on the infinite nature of language. So it's very much like saying people can't have learned about numbers just from education. There are infinitely many numbers so learning by example can't work. Therefore we must have some innate component which understands numbers. 

I definitely agree. However people are essentially animals so whatever components we have are animal components and shared with other species. This video tests a dog's perfect pitch, but it also reveals that - although the dog does make mistakes - it has some kind of idea of one, two and three: 
https://youtu.be/Y82sYIDxDoc?t=5m16s

Here the same owner tells her dogs which note to play (do, re, mi, fa, so etc.) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r0qFVuLBsUA (The light-coloured dog is playing triads for the root note).

Here the dogs encode verbal symbols into musical ones. It's not a mere matter of knowing which key to push because the scale is octave-repeating so there are actually two keys for each note in this particular pedal. I think these videos demonstrate well the basics of mathematics as well as language although scientific evidence does also exist. Anyway, dogs have processing power for language and math, and so do people, but more. This does in my mind suggest that math and language are based on measureable reality (such as sound waves and many others).

>> However syntax or mathematics is not biological, and must depend on possibility. I think the topic "Alien language research" is actually pretty good for crystallizing this idea: it's often said that an alien syntax "could be anything"; however it's impossible to think of a functional language (expressive and learnable) that isn't in its essence similar to the languages of the world; and one that can't be derived from the fundamental grammar. 
 
> Suppose an alien language were a little more like facial expressions, or like the immune system. We could imagine a highly developed system of communication which wasn't directly consciously available, often not directly consciously controllable, but still transferred a wealth of information. Like reading someone's face, the species using this might have a vivid sense reading the intention behind the communication, without knowing exactly what sensory cues were at work or what claim was being made. 

Complex facial expressions might be too similar to sign language. Animals (including people) do read a lot of information from body language and that seems to be enough for the overwhelming majority of mammals, but it doesn't seem to build up to a syntactic language. The immune system idea is interesting; what if alien communication could be chemical, and in that way quite precise (e.g. inducing visions in the receiving brain)? In that case Chomsky's UG would seem quite plausible - and any kind of syntax quite unnecessary. I think we come back to the point where Chomskyan theories are more suitable for describing "alien languages" than human and computer languages.

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March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
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July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
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July 2000, Week 5
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July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
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June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
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July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
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June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
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May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
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April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
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March 1999, Week 3
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March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
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February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
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November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
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November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
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September 1998, Week 3

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