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CONLANG  August 2015, Week 2

CONLANG August 2015, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Alien language research

From:

Daniel Demski <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 8 Aug 2015 12:09:47 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (370 lines)

(Inline replies to Patrik, with a small reply to R A Brown hidden in there)

-----Original Message-----

From: Constructed Languages List [mailto:[log in to unmask]] On
Behalf Of Patrik Austin

Sent: Wednesday, August 05, 2015 8:44 AM

To: [log in to unmask]

Subject: Re: Alien language research

>> ...I'll keep this email from getting any longer by not expanding on
that; hopefully it's halfway clear. Thanks for the interesting responses,
and sorry I'm so longwinded!

>Thanks for your very interesting responses!

>> I guess the way I originally phrased things, what I was saying was that
we're making an interesting set of assumptions in order to get to a point
where we can apply the Principle of Indifference.

>I'm thinking let's apply the POI and when we see it doesn't work, we have
to look deeper. You know how to do the math, but I was thinking the next
step would be taking different things into account, such as the following:

>- conjunctions

>- AUX - V order

>- adverbs and adverbials

>- word order in main clause vs. sub clause

>- zero-marking vs. overt marking

>- preposition vs. postposition vs. case

>- other possibly relevant factors not yet mentioned

>One reason why the O/S factor may not be so important is that both could
be analysed as (possibly unmarked) adverbials.

Part of what I'm claiming is that because we can't really get to the point
of saying S, O and V are elegant or universal, we aren't proceeding from a
strong position in such analysis. The assumptions we make before applying
POI are complicated and inelegant.

Mathematically what I'm saying is this: If we start from the assumption
that the 6 possible word orders might be evenly distributed, and then do a
Bayesian update on the available evidence, we will end up with an accurate
belief about language - we'll converge on the actual observed
probabilities, which you gave earlier. But that won't tell us anything! Our
perfectly accurate explanation will tell us some process is producing the
observed frequencies. There's no room in the process to say "well maybe O
and S are adverbials".

If you want to consider those sorts of possibilities, you have to consider
them *before* you look at the data, just like good old fashioned scientific
method. And this makes sense: If after looking at the data, you consider
accounting for preposition/postposition, adverbs/adverbials, etc., then
really, you must have thought that they were some sort of possibility
before looking at the data.

The right way about the problem is to create a "universal prior" that
accurately represents your state of belief by assigning a probability to
every single possibility. And of course, these possibilities wouldn't be of
the form "41% of languages are SOV". They would list distinct possibilities
for what languages can look like.

Wow let's see if I can actually connect this back to the original topic!
Supposing you create such a "universal prior" which seems to apply to any
possible language, and not "just" human languages: perform the Bayesian
update (no small task, but just amounts to checking how wrong you were) and
see how much more specific your model got. If some of the possibilities
originally listed shrank to near zero, that means there are some things
which are possible but which humans just don't do.

Once that's established, you'd still have to decide what mechanisms to
explain the trends with. Some would undoubtedly use UG, others argue for
historical explanations (perhaps natural language change simply doesn't
ever make certain changes). But the argument would now be grounded in
numerous very specific deviations between model and reality, so it might
become much easier to see what type of explanation works best.

This ridiculously rigorous process doesn't have to be carried out in full.
Take any of the claimed linguistic universals that started this
conversation. Put it in context with a judgment of how large or small a
space it takes up within the space of *all possible* language features (and
I still mean, not just in human languages). Then compare that with the
claimed "no known examples" amongst humans. We might find that these are
strange, hand-picked features and are absent by chance; we might find that
we need a bit of an explanation, such as a pragmatic tendency to avoid an
awkward feature (though, don't cheat: awkwardness should have been in your
initial estimate); or we might find that absence in humans is hard to
explain and we need to change our model.

Obviously, judging how common a feature is within the space of all possible
features is somewhat arbitrary. There's no way to be objective about this.
A "universal prior" lists all the possibilities, but there are infinitely
many universal priors. In some fields there turn out to be good guarantees
that universal priors be "not that different" in some sense, but I've no
idea whether that's the case here, and even with such guarantees it's true
that for any one language feature, and any one probability (however small),
there exists a prior which estimates that feature as less likely than that
probability.

Still, going through the process of assigning probabilities, making a
model, and adding everything up forces a lot of honesty. It still
technically might be possible to just say whatever you want, but you'd have
to say it in a densely interconnected, consistent way which would have
interesting consequences.

>I'm actually thinking the way you show how to work the statistical
assumptions is just perfect; exactly the kind of work I'd love to see in
linguistics in the coming years. There's growing knowledge of language
optimality, see e.g. http://www.helsinki.fi/~ksinnema/zero_alt8.pdf but
researchers have to use phrases like "…we do not know what is causing
this…" I believe that answers can be found with mathematical or statistical
methods that look into the phenomena that occur in language when it's being
used, and a priori.

I should mention that I'm currently not in school and would love to enter a
Ph.D. program and investigate this stuff.

That link looked a good deal better than other "optimality theory" stuff
I've seen! I haven't looked at a whole lot of it, but older OT literature
just ranks constraints in order of importance, rather than modeling them as
a statistical, diachronic process.

>> (Here's the paragraph I'm referring to: "[...] by choosing three primary
parts you're making a choice. [...] Or, even if all languages do have
subjects, objects, and verbs (or, we add the exceptions to the model),
there's still more than logical necessity behind this. The real assumption
being made is that there's a connection between the description and the
languages we see in the world.") If I may be a bit redundant, I'll just
stress: my purpose is to argue logical necessity doesn't get us very far.

>But don't forget I was also proposing a pragmatic factor that we could
call optimality although criteria for optimality haven't been established
yet. I prefer to say that syntactic structures must be based on logical
necessity, and some logical choices are more practical or even more useful
than others. This hasn't been studied as much as it should have, but it's
emerging.

>However, even the mere logical necessity gets us surprisingly far. If you
check out the Hodor thread, you'll see that there's a language generated by
the grammar S -> a | S -> aS where a's are a set of nouns (roughly), and
this elementary language can be used to express everything that any known
language can express; and that the parse-trees for this language look
pretty similar to any other we've seen so far. It should be easy to prove
(applying a step-by-step method) that (1) all formal languages are
constructed on this and (2) there are no languages that cannot be traced
down to this language.

The stuff in the Hodor thread looks very nice, but I'm struggling a little
with the semantics; I haven't totally convinced myself even on the version
with two parts of speech. (Specifically, I guess I don't get what's meant
semantically by structures like [ [] [] [] ]. But I'll stare at it a bit
more.) Using the parse tree to reduce it to one part of speech seems like
it might add some ambiguity. But, I haven't thought it through yet.

One thing I'm very skeptical of is that claim that the parse-trees of this
slim, elegant language look similar to natural languages. It certainly
looks possible, and would be a fantastic argument that logical necessity
gets us really far. But notice how you use indices to accomplish certain
things; it would be necessary to demonstrate that other similar tricks
don't accomplish things which human languages never do.

R A Brown wrote:

>What about those square brackets?  Ed Heil had said of AllNoun "The trick
in AllNoun, IMHO, is that the other parts of speech besides nouns have been
disguised as punctuation marks."  I agreed with him - but look again at all
I wrote in that email.

>

>If the language is to be human usable, presumably those square brackets
must be given some sort of articulation.

My understanding was that having two parts of speech means humans insert
those brackets by knowing the difference between prepositions and nouns.
The noun-only version seems to accomplish everything with word order,
though I'm not 100% sure yet what I think of that.

>> Languages must randomly, or at least evenly, switch whether subject or
predicate comes first in sentences; and it would be reasonable to suppose
that when the switch occurs, the object and the verb move together (or some
other process preserves this correspondence, e.g. they never move together).

>That could be true as well, and it's all the better if you can somehow
find a relevant explanation as to why this happens. And if this
never/always happens, you'll probably be able to find evidence in the
statistics.

I think you understood me right here, but I wasn't completely clear so I'll
just add: if that type of model matches with reality, the linguist would
objectively know that when subject and predicate swap, *some* process must
preserve that correspondence between object location and verb location.
Always moving together is actually the only good explanation I can think
of, but there might be others. (So, stepping out of the metaphor, I believe
*some* objective conclusions can be reached with these methods but it's
often not long before you reach something nebulous again.)

>> It's not exactly a fallacy to bring evidence for UG from syntax. If
there's (biological) UG, there has to be syntax; therefore if there's
syntax, *and* we don't already believe there has to be syntax for some
other reason, then we must take that as some degree of evidence for UG.

>That's surely how Chomskyans see it, but the *and* is redundant, and
therefore it's a circular argument. Is it not the same as this classical
example: (1) The Bible is true because God says so; (2) God exists because
the Bible says so.

No, I don't believe so. If it's raining, the ground will be wet. Therefore
if the ground is wet, *and* we don't have other good reasons the ground
might be wet, then we must take that as some degree of evidence that it's
raining. I was just trying to instantiate that sort of argument.

>Also let's be clear what exactly Chomsky says; this comes from Wikipedia:
"The basis to Chomsky's linguistic theory is that the principles underlying
the structure of language are biologically determined in the human mind and
hence genetically transmitted.[122] He therefore argues that all humans
share the same underlying linguistic structure, irrespective of
socio-cultural difference.[123] In this he opposes the radical behaviourist
psychology of B.F. Skinner, instead arguing that human language is unlike
modes of communication used by any other animal species.[124]"

I'm not so clear on Chomsky as that. From what I've read, sometimes it
doesn't seem like he's that committed to the "genetically transmitted"
part. But I'm not interested in determining exactly what position one
person holds. The important thing is to distinguish between different
hypotheses. Surely we can talk about "diachronic UG" as in that optimality
paper linked above, or "biological UG" or even "logically necessitated
grammar".

>I think this would also suggest that no other species in the Universe has
a language whose structures could be placed within the spectrum of all
human languages, accepting the notion that evolution is extremely unlikely
to occur the same way twice. Well, here's a random quote: "There are many
more powerful arguments that there is one common ancestor to all living
thing on earth. Each living thing shares exactly the same mechanisms for
preserving information - DNA, copying the DNA into RNA and then translating
this into protein. The idea that this would evolve in the same way twice
seems completely unlikely."

I definitely agree with the quote. There are people who disagree though-
and to be clear, I'm saying there are evolutionary biologists who disagree.
Some think that the chemical elements were stuck with in this Universe only
allow carbon-based, water-based, DNA-based life.

>As I think I can prove, all human languages can be traced down to a common
structure, although the actual "ancestor" grammar may be more complex than
the one I've given so far. This would mean that, to give any credibility to
the Chomskyan idea, the common denominator for all languages would have to
be roughly as complex as the DNA to leave enough room for the possibility
of non-Human languages. This is not what I would argue in the first place
because I'm not advocating a biological explanation.

I think I can make a good case against this. I think that if I'm careful
enough I can come up with more than one thoroughly nonhuman language
examples. But that's not the right direction to argue since it might turn
out hard to *show* they're not like human languages. More directly, I think
I can argue that the core which human languages have in common is big
enough that there ought to be truly nonhuman languages.

I'm going to hold off until I have a clear understanding of your simple
language. (Otherwise I wouldn't send this message for a week.)

[snip]

>> But I do think *most* intelligent species would use numbers; and perhaps
most would understand the concept of sound.

>Exactly. Any intelligent species would have to understand that if there
are two rocks on the ground, and you add another one, then there are three
rocks. Also, talking of this universe at least, any life as we know would
have to be in a place where there's sound (i.e. not in space), so it's
quite likely that any complex creature has hearing. It's also quite likely
that such creatures would live in a place where there's light (to allow
photosynthesis), so they're also quite likely to have vision.

This, I disagree with. Simply for the sake of clarity I'll put a number on
my position. I think 80% or 90% of intelligent aliens would have numeracy
in the general population. And even allowing a multiverse with different
physical laws elsewhere I'd keep my guess nearly that high, say 70%.

Any intelligent species needs to understand that if you have a rock and you
flip it over, then flip it again, it ends up right-side-up. But that's
modular arithmetic, or more usefully, group theory. I absolutely buy the
argument that an intelligent species will have to invent group theory. Same
goes for counting. But I don't think the average member of the species will
necessarily know either.

But I'm arguing the difference between maybe 85% and 99%. We differ more on
the "sound" issue.

How many species on Earth have ears? How many of those have awful hearing,
or can't produce sounds in the same range they pick up sound? I guess I
should look this up, but a lot of arthropods don't have good hearing, and I
don't think deep-sea creatures do.

What is sound anyway? In essence it's pressure, except we take the Fourier
transform of pressure so we catch fast, and especially cyclic changes (and
ignore slow ones). A more pure pressure-sense might be useful in some
environments, or a different transform such as a chirp-transform. The way
we Earthlings process sound could be biased by heritage; nerves only
evolved ince, and there are certain sorts of computations they're good at.
Multiple evolutionary 'discoveries' of the same mechanism provide some
comfort, but I always remind myself there's a suspicious amount in common
amongst Earth life.

I feel the same way about vision. Eyes have evolved multiple times, but
every single time it's based on the same ancestral genes!!! Pigment spots
or something. What if an alien planet simply didn't start out with the
right set of genes - no early pigment spots?

What if most life is inside gas giants where light doesn't reach? What if a
planet doesn't have the right chemistry for transparent flesh to form
lenses? What if there's some really convenient sense we never evolved, and
eyes just are less important because of that?

To me it seems all too easy to argue aliens would be like us. We have the
living proof that our setup works. Billions of years of molecular
exploration, seeming obvious after the fact. That's a hard bias to escape.
Which just makes it all the more worth escaping.

[snip]
>I guess it's imaginable, but the experience we have from this planet
suggests that although subconscious body language is indeed very common, it
doesn't build up to a syntactic language. Furthermore, such communication
doesn't seem to serve much purpose (unless we're on a hyper small-talk
planet ;) I actually think that Darwin's slogan "survival of the fittest"
is genuinely false - in truth evolution produces individuals that are *as
unfit as possible* in the sense that if they were any more unfit, they
wouldn't survive. Evolution doesn't produce complex ("expensive")
properties just for fun; although mutations do allow some degree of this
(anyway this is why people can't fly, for instance).

I see your point. But I was trying to show that such languages can be
pictured, in a decent amount of detail. If we can list any sort of language
which is clearly different from human language, that's enough to show
there's something specific about human language.

But, lest I forget my own point from earlier: it would be my job to show
such a language feature isn't *so* unlikely that it's absence on Earth
would be expected. I guess I'd cite the fact that the immune system uses
the hash-based type of information transfer.

On Earth, only one species unambiguously has complex syntactic language. I
don't think the failure of body-language type of communication vs. the
success of vocalizations is clear evidence.

[snip]
>> Another interesting point: in order for such telepathy-like
communication to enable discussion of some sort, the creatures would need
to be able to receive each others' thoughts, but hold them apart from their
own thoughts; that is, *understand* what the other is thinking, as opposed
to just being externally forced to have the exact same thought (hallucinate
the same sights, etc.). But this implies there's some types of experiences
which can't be telepathically transferred: especially the experience of
receiving someone else's thoughts and comparing them with your own.

>Well, you know. Some mammals have four stomachs…

I was thinking the same. :) There would always be something which couldn't
be communicated, though.

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May 2012, Week 3
May 2012, Week 2
May 2012, Week 1
April 2012, Week 5
April 2012, Week 4
April 2012, Week 3
April 2012, Week 2
April 2012, Week 1
March 2012, Week 5
March 2012, Week 4
March 2012, Week 3
March 2012, Week 2
March 2012, Week 1
February 2012, Week 5
February 2012, Week 4
February 2012, Week 3
February 2012, Week 2
February 2012, Week 1
January 2012, Week 5
January 2012, Week 4
January 2012, Week 3
January 2012, Week 2
January 2012, Week 1
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 5
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 5
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 5
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 5
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
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August 2001, Week 1
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July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
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October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
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September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
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June 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
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March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
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July 1999, Week 5
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July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
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June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
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May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
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February 1999, Week 5
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February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
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January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
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October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
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September 1998, Week 5
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September 1998, Week 3

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