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CONLANG  July 2016, Week 1

CONLANG July 2016, Week 1

Subject:

I Love When Things Just Click

From:

Logan Kearsley <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 7 Jul 2016 17:24:09 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (291 lines)

This is a bit disjointed, but I've had a bunch of different features
of Valaklwuuxa just kind of invent themselves, with initially totally
unrelated bits turning out to click together just perfectly.

It is difficult to organize all the threads in my head, so I'm putting
down a bunch of it in a rather disorganized form that at least gets it
recorded. And that's easier to do with an audience, so here you go:

I'll start out with forming negatives.

The verb <wek'> serves as a transitive negative auxiliary. This can
take a relative clause or a complement clause object, with slightly
different semantics.

With a relative clause object, it means "is not" or "does not".

xwe-wek'end ta nk'ap
1sg=NEG-1p IND coyote-3p
"I am not a coyote."

lwe-wek' ta stekuk
3sg=NEG-3p IND bounce-3p
"He/she/it does not bounce" / "He/she/it is not a bouncer"

And we can add imperative inflections for "don't" or "no":

dwu-wek'we ta tupund!
2sg=NEG-IMP IND hit-3p>3p
"Don't hit!" / "Don't be a hitter!" / "No hitting!"

vwu-wek'we ta tupundsa!
2pl=NEG-IMP IND hit-INV-3p>3p
"Don't get hit!"

With a complement clause, it takes on the meaning of "don't cause" or
"don't allow".

xwe-wek'end ta he-stekuk tandek nk'ap va se
1sg=NEG-1sg IND CMP=bounce-3p IND-pl coyote-3p OBL this.INAN
"I don't let coyotes bounce around here" (or Tiggers! No Bouncing!)

dwu-wek'we ta xe-tupundka txe nk'ap la!
2sg=NEG-IMP IND 1sg=hit-1p>3p DEF coyote-3p ART
"Don't make me hit the coyote!"

(Incidentally, I still don't have a good formal rule for the
post-posed article <la>, but I can now do a little better than "I know
when it feels right to use it": it has an effect something like saying
"I have nothing more to say about this particular referent".)

And, like any other transitive, we can relativize the negative verb to
introduce a non-pronominal subject:

nk'ap txe wek' ta stekuk
coyote-3p DEF NEG-3p IND bounce-3p
"The coyote doesn't bounce." / "The coyote isn't a bouncer."

(Given some time to evolve, this might end up turning into a regular
SVO daughter language where subjects are marked by head-final
structure, while objects use head-initial structure!)


Part Two: Possessive marking.

Predicative possession is already handled in most cases by derivation,
but it's rather awkward to say thing like "I threw my rock" when you
have to start out with "I have a rock" -> "I threw the rock that I
have".

Valaklwuuxa now has a set of possessive affixes which bind to a root
before any voice or agreement affixes, but after the transitivizer
<-t>. Second person possessors are indicated by prefixes, while first
and 3rd/4th use suffixes.

sg pl
1 -(u)l -(u)x
2 n(e)- lap-
3/4 -s/h

There is only a single affix for 3rd and 4th person, singular and
plural, but with two allomorphs- <s> occurs when the root does not end
with <s> already, and <h> (pronounced /T/) occurs otherwise.
The 1pl. affix is provisional, as I am not yet certain how big a
problem confusion with the sometimes-homophonous imperative suffix
might be. The 1p affixes are also notable for not using the typical
<e> epenthetic vowel, selecting <u> instead.

In non-nominalized predicates, these affixes always identify the
absolutive argument as the possessum. Thus:

xe-ndalend tu txe wonglqal
1sg-throw-1p PST DEF rock-1POSS-3p
"I threw my rock"

But, since the absolutive argument of "throw" is the same as the
absolutive argument of "to be a rock", we can *also* say

xe-ndalulend tu txe wonglqa
1sg-throw-1POSS-1p PST DEF rock-3p
"I threw my rock"

Such possessor raising is obligatory when the object is unspecified,
or when the relativized argument of an object phrase is not
absolutive:

xe-nendalend tu
1sg-2POSS-throw-1p PST
"I threw yours"

A kwe! Dwu-wondekulsk tu txe tupund tandek nk'ap!
EXCL! 2sg=yoink-1POSS-2p PST DEF hit-3p IND-pl coyote-3p!
"Hey! You took my coyote-beater!"


Part Three: Empty Hosts

What if you want to say "That's mine!"? You could try using the
stative/possessive derivation of one of the deictic predicates,
<dasa>, "to be that":

xe-vesdasand!
1sg=STA-that-1p

but that actually means "I have that". So what if we stick the
possessive affix in?

xe-vesdasalend!
1sg=STA-that-1POSS-1p
"I have that one of mine."

In order to solve this problem, we have a set of "empty hosts" or
"expletive predicates" that serve only as a base on which to add
suffixes. The first of these is <heda>. With that, we can say:

hedal sel
0-1POSS-3p that.INAN
"That's mine."

When not being used as an expletive predicate, <heda> also means "there is":

heda ta nk'ap
"There's a coyote." / "A coyote exists."

Much like in English it is common in colloquial usage to begin a story
with a phrase like "So there's this guy, and he...", a casual
narrative in Valaklwuuxa might begin with "Heda ta swetqe 'gu...."

In this meaning, an explicit subject is obligatory, so it is not licit
to include a subject-marking clitic. It is, however, possible to use
clitic subjects when <heda> is expletive:

le-hedal / le-nhedal / le-hedas
"It's mine" / "It's yours" / "It's his/hers/theirs"

We can also say things like:

hedal txe nk'ap
"The coyote is mine."

This is another case where possessor raising is obligatory; "heda txe
nk'apul" would translate as something like "There exists my coyote" or
"my coyote exists".

Now we can see how this connects back with part one: the negative
auxiliary can also serve as a host for possessives (and other things,
to come later):

wek'ul txe nk'ap
"The coyote isn't mine."

lwe-wek'ul txe nk'ap / lwe-wek' txe nk'apul
"It's not my coyote" with/without possessor raising.

And a few different ways of saying "That is not my coyote":

dasa txe wek'ul txe nk'ap
that-3p DEF NEG-1POSS-3p DEF coyote-3p

nk'ap txe wek'ulsa se
coyote-3p DEF NEG-1POSS-INV-3p that.ANIM

Without the inverse voice marker on that last one, <nk'ap txe wek'ul
se> would mean "that (animate) one of mine is not the coyote".

And there is, of course, a non-negative transitive empty host: <k'u>

nk'ap txe k'ulsa se
"That *is* my coyote."

This sentiment is more easily expressed simply as

nk'apul se
"That's my coyote"

without the inversion and possessor raising, but this particular
expletive predicate is useful in other circumstances.


Part Four: Lexical suffixes

Valaklwuuxa has two subcategories of lexical suffixes: substantive
suffixes, and predicative suffixes.

Substantive suffixes act sort of like classifiers, sort of like
derivational affixes. They specify broad, vague categories of nouny
things, and can specify theme, location, properties of the object, or
metaphorical/impressionistic properties of the predicates they attach
to.

A couple of these suffixes are <-vwol> "river" and <-txes> "hand or
finger". Typical usages of these suffixes can be seen in the words
<takvol> "to navigate a river", from <tak> "to go along a path", and
<tupuntxes> "to slap", from <tupund> "to hit".

These suffixes can also, however, be attached to empty hosts in order
to access their vague lexical content alone. Thus we have

henavwol - riverine, riparian
henatxes - prehensile (of a limb) or finely crafted (of an artifact)

k'uvwol - to do something involving running water
k'utxes - to do something with one's hands

Predicative suffixes have the semantics of transitive predicates.
Unlike substantive suffixes, they can attach only to basically
intransitive bases (no detransitivized derivations of basic
transitives), with the single argument described by the base serving
as the object of the transitive suffix. The result is a new
intransitive verb that takes a different argument than the original
base- the subject of the predicative suffix.

An example of a predicative suffix is <-enhe> "wait for". From this,
we can derive words like <swetqenhe> "to wait for a man". Another is
<-xwu> "be in (a volume)", from which we can get words like
<welangxwu> "to be inside" (from <welang> "house"). Predicative
suffixes like this are a large part of how Valaklwuuxa handles
locative adpositional concepts, given that it has only a single actual
preposition for marking all oblique relations.

Sometimes, however, you'll want to use these verbs with a more
elaborated object, or with an object formed from a basically
transitivize verb. In those cases, we again have to make use of empty
hosts, forming a transitive (rather than intransitive) compound verb.
Since the resulting verbs must be transitive, we can only use <k'u>
and <wek'> (not <hena>!) as the base. Thus, we can say things like

xe-k'ukenhend txe tupund ta nk'ap
"I await the coyote-hitter."

(Note that <k>, pronounced in this environment as /x/, is introduced
as an epenthetic consonant to resolve the disallowed cluster <ue>
between <k'u> and <-enhe>; if either of those vowels had been rounded,
this would not have been necessary.)

and

le-wek'xwu txe nbatqenb welang
"It isn't inside the beautiful house."

Incidentally, as a result of the fact that predicative suffixes can be
attached directly to the negative auxiliary, these are the *only*
verbs that have a non-periphrastic negative!

Lexical suffixes also interact interestingly with possessives.
Possessive affixes, as previously described, attach to their base
before anything else, other than the transitivizer <-t>. Lexical
suffixes can thus make the first and 3rd/4th person possessive affixes
look like infixes. One might think that, if second person possessives
were attached to a predicative suffix first, that might result in
those affixes occurring as infixes as well- but the absolutive
argument of a lexical suffix is *always* the same as the absolutive
argument of its base, so there is never any reason to do that. Thus,
we get examples like

henalvwol txe welang
0-1POSS-river DEF house-3p
"My house is on the riverfront"

txe nehenatxes
DEF 2POSS-0-hand-3p
"your finely crafted artifact"

vwu-wek'stxeswe
2pl-NEG-3POSS-hand-IMP
"Don't handle their stuff"

And at this point I have far more examples than any two average papers
on Salish linguistics.

-l.

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November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
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August 2001, Week 1
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July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
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May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
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October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
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June 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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