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CONLANG  September 2016, Week 4

CONLANG September 2016, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Theory: Universal Semantic Molecules, Non-circular Dictionary

From:

Jeffrey Brown <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 25 Sep 2016 16:23:05 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (129 lines)

I had time finally to go through Wierzbicka's list of 400 semantic
primitives (http://learnthesewordsfirst.com/) to determine if I was missing
any in my CIP ("conlang in progress"). I was indeed. These fell into two
categories.

(1) Words that derive a generic meaning from a concrete one. For example,
"type of" (as in "A poodle is a type of dog"), or "similar to" (as in
"Wolves are similar to dogs"). Both of these primitives start with a
concrete noun and manipulate categories based on that noun (the set of
things that are like dogs -- the set of poodles is a subset of the set of
dogs). I suppose one could call these genericity operators -- maybe not. My
CIP did not have these. I added them.

(2) Words that represent common technological artefacts that have been
adopted by almost all world languages. Examples: Electricity, Paper,
Machine, Car.  I don't see these as true semantic primitives, by which I
mean words that express concepts that are universal to all human
experience, regardless of the culture. However,
​
Wierzbicka developed her set of 400 primitives from investigating concepts
that are common to many languages. I have no trouble believing that a word
for "electricity" exists, in some borrowed form, in most of today's
languages. For my CIP, I ignored these, because the conculture is
definitely pre-technological, and highly isolated too.

It was a worthwhile exercise. It made me question which of the missing
meanings belonged in my conlang. Did I really need a word which expressed
the idea of "shape of X"?  When you consider it, a shape, independent of
the concrete object that has that shape, is really an abstract concept. In
the real world, abstract shapes do not exist. (Just as "redness" does not
exist, only things that are red.) In this case, I overloaded a word I had
already defined whose meaning was "sex of", assuming that "shape of" could
be considered a metaphorical extension of the different shapes of genitalia.


On Thu, Sep 8, 2016 at 2:26 PM, Jeffrey Brown <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> I read the papers and reviewed the dictionary and I think this work is
> quite impressive.
>
> Whether or not a non-circular dictionary is the best way to proceed for
> language learning, I cannot say. But pictures, or even videos, are a good
> starting point for someone learning a new language without any reference
> points,
>
> In terms of the validity of the semantic primitives, from
> ​​
> Wierzbicka et al, mostly these seem to be rooted in the common biological
> experiences of all humans: mother, father, hunger, thirst, fatigue, seeing,
> hearing, walking, me, other, etc...  It is no surprise that these are
> expressible in every language of the world. I agree with Alex that
> attempting to formulate a universal semantics for the wide multifarious
> world is a quixotic task. There must be uncountable ways to split up the
> raw experiences into lexical or grammatical categories. Nevertheless, it
> also makes sense that there is some basic commonality to the human
> experience, regardless of culture or language.
>
> But for conlangers, having this dictionary of 360 or 400 words is a great
> benefit. Your lexicon should contain a word for every one of those
> primitives, or some morpheme or other method to express the meaning.
> (Xenolangs excepted.) Otherwise, you will likely encounter a situation, a
> basic human situation, that you cannot express in your conlang.
>
> Jeffrey
>
>
> On Mon, Sep 5, 2016 at 3:11 PM, Pol Kacats <0000011c8f42d4dc-dmarc-
> [log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
>> Hi, everyone.
>>
>> Here are a couple things I thought might be of interest:
>>
>> ----------
>>
>> 1. UNIVERSAL SEMANTIC MOLECULES
>>
>> At the "Global English, Minimal English" symposium last year, Cliff
>> Goddard and Anna Wierzbicka discussed semantic primes (Natural Semantic
>> Metalanguage) and universal semantic molecules, in relation to the use of
>> minimal English as an auxiliary lingua franca. The paper includes some
>> lists of semantic universals.
>>
>> You can read their paper here:
>>
>> http://hrc.anu.edu.au/sites/hrc.anu.edu.au/files/u78/Global_
>> English_Minimal_English%20position%20papers.pdf
>>
>> And see the symposium program here:
>>
>> http://hrc.anu.edu.au/events/global-english-minimal-english-
>> towards-better-intercultural-communication
>>
>> ----------
>>
>> 2. NON-CIRCULAR DICTIONARY
>>
>> In the "Learn These Words First" dictionary, Natural Semantic
>> Metalanguage (NSM) is used to eliminate circular definitions and make the
>> dictionary accessible to second-language learners at lower vocabulary
>> levels.
>>
>> The dictionary is organized into layers:
>>
>> - Layer 1 = The NSM semantic atoms (or "primes").
>>
>> - Layers 2 to 35 = About 300 semantic molecules, each explained using
>> only atoms and molecules introduced in previous layers.
>>
>> - Layer 36 = The Longman Defining Vocabulary (about 2000 words), defined
>> using only the atoms and molecules from the previous layers.
>>
>> - Layer 37 = The "Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English" can be
>> considered the final layer, since every word is defined using only the
>> 2000-word defining vocabulary.
>>
>> You can see the dictionary here:
>>
>> http://learnthesewordsfirst.com
>>
>> And read more about it here:
>>
>> http://learnthesewordsfirst.com/about/index.html
>>
>> ----------
>>
>
>

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