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CONLANG  October 2016, Week 3

CONLANG October 2016, Week 3

Subject:

Re: The Hush Language

From:

Logan Kearsley <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 15 Oct 2016 14:13:17 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (128 lines)

On 14 October 2016 at 12:42, Sabrina <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
> I was actually working on a consonant-less conlang once; the idea was to have a shit-ton of tones (it was supposed to be an alien language that had a similar vocal tract but better hearing than humans), a fairly average vowel inventory, and then some weird tone sandhi that would add consonants in certain positions. I didn’t get very far on it, though.
>
> Like you said, nasalized vowels could could add nasal consonants (something like; front vowels use [m], central vowels or use [n], back vowels use [ŋ]), rhotacized vowels could add rhotic consonants. Perhaps creaky vowels could add a glottal stop or glottalized consonant. Unvoiced vowels could be surrounded by certain voiceless consonants. Perhaps you could have “aspirated” vowels that are really followed by an [h] or other rear voiceless fricative. I’ve never heard of lateral vowels, but you could have vowels that require a lateral before or after, thus making them ‘lateral vowels’ in a way.
[...]
> As for realism, you could aim to get something akin, perhaps, to an Iroquoian language? Onondaga gets away with [t k ʔ n w j h], all possible according to the above rules, and [dʒ s], which would take a little tweaking. Mohawk adds /l/ and /r/ (or at least some sort of rhotic), and the rhotic would be easy enough, and it’s possible to get /l/ via those ‘lateral’ vowels I was talking about. Cayuga is a bit more complex, but it switches /r/ for /ɹ/. Seneca and Onondaga apparently have the vowel [æ], in addition to a relatively standard [i u e o a] and [i e o a], respectively (not including nasal vowels), but Cayuga, which is in the same subgroup as Seneca and Onondaga, doesn’t have [æ], just [i e u o a] (again, not including nasal vowels). Mohawk has [ʌ] as a nasalized vowel. None of them have [ɨ], though.
> Which brings us to Uto-Aztecan. They tend to have something like [p t k kʷ ʔ], [m n] and maybe [ŋ], [w j l h s ts], and sometimes [tʃ], though there are plenty that are way more complex than that. But sticking with Northern Paiute, Huichol, Shoshoni, and Comanche. They all have [kʷ], which I doubt this language would have, unless you decided to add labialized consonants before rounded vowels or something, which I suppose you could do. They also all have [w j ʔ h t k p], which this language would most likely have (except perhaps for [p]?). Northern Paiute has [m n ŋ] for nasals, but the others drop the velar nasal. Huichol has [ts~s x ɾ], which is a bit…odd for ours. But Shoshoni and Comanche only have [ts s], probably because they’re very similar, while Northern Paiute has [ts s tʃ]. Not too bad. As for the vowels, Huichol has [i ɨ u ɛ a], very similar to ours. Northern Paiute ditches [ɛ] for [ɔ], while Shoshoni has [o] instead of either. Comanche’s inventory is most similar to ours, with [i ɨ u e o a]. It’s just “missing” [ʌ].
> So, based on the above, I think the vowel system is realistic, except perhaps in the length department (more realistic would be simply short and long, and perhaps over-long). The consonants that would ‘need’ to be accounted for would be a set of stops, not necessarily including a bilabial stop, semivowels, an alveolar nasal at the least but perhaps a bilabial as well (and a velar wouldn’t be unrealistic), approximants could likely include [ɹ r l] or any one or two of them. Fricatives/affricates could have [h], and I think there are some languages that only have [h], but [h s] would be best. All the Iroquoian and Uto-Aztecan langs I looked at added an affricate, [ts] or [tʃ/dʒ], but I’m not sure it’s unrealistic to not have any affricates.
> There’s also the famous tiny consonant inventory group of Hawaiian, Rotokas, and Pirahã. Five vowels except for the latter, which gets by with just [i a o] (however, it also has two tones). Rotokas’s consonant inventory confuses me, but hawaiian gets by with [p k ʔ h l w], by which standards this language would be perfectly plausible. Pirahã has [p t ʔ m n s h], which, again, makes ours look pretty plausible. You could probably get by with adding in a few things that seem totally out of left field, ‘cause languages are weird, especially when you start chipping away at the consonant inventories.

That seems like useful stuff to know for evaluating naturalism. Here's
my first draft attempt:

For simplicity, start with just /i/, /a/, /u/ as the basic, plain
vowels. (More vowels could be added later, but these are sufficient to
demonstrate the rules I have in mind.)
Each of these can then come in plain, breathy, rhotic, and nasal
varieties, or any combination thereof; i.e., one could have a breathy
nasal rhotic vowel, with all three extra qualities at once. For the
first draft, I'll assume that any vowel can have any combination of
these qualities, and there are no phonotactic restrictions on the
underlying vowel string. (Changing either of those assumptions would
introduce further structural interestingness in later drafts.) All of
these vowels can also be long or short, with syllables being maximally
3 morae; thus, one can have one short vowel, two short vowels, three
short vowels, one long vowel, or one short vowel and one long vowel
per syllable, where all of the vowels in a single syllable must share
all of their voicing, rhotic, and nasal features. For
consonant-induction purposes a "long syllable" is any syllable
containing a long vowel, or a triphthong (long, long+short,
short+long, and short+short+short, but not short+short). Ignoring
length, this results in 8 possible versions of every basic vowel,
which can be transcribed as V, hV, Vn, Vr, Vrn, hVn, hVr, and hVrn.

Breathy-voiced vowels induce an onset "h" morpheme-initially or after
a non-breathy vowel. All other vowel qualities affect the coda. (A
reasonable phonotactic restriction on the vowel string might be that
plain vowels can't follow breathy vowels in the same morpheme, just
because *I* find it difficult to perceive the transition from breathy
to plain voice.)

Coda consonants are induced when transitioning from a vowel that has a
certain quality to one that doesn't, or sometimes at morpheme
boundaries.

Plain vowels induce plain coda stops. High front vowels (/i/) induce
[t], high back vowels (/u/) induce [k], and low vowels (/a/) induce
[?]. These all become aspirated when followed by unstressed breathy
voice; if the breathy syllable is *stressed*, then [t] becomes [ts]
and [k] becomes [x], while [?] is unaffected.
Since plain vowels already lack other properties, if the inducing
vowel is short, these consonant sounds will only occur at
non-utterance-final morpheme boundaries. If the syllable is long,
consonants are induced at any non-word-final syllable boundary;
additionally, the consonants will be geminated, stealing duration from
the vowel.

Nasal vowels induce nasal stops, with front and mid vowels (/i/ and
/a/) inducing a coda [m] at the end of a word and [n] in other
positions, and back vowels (/u/) inducing /N/. (I feel like this makes
a bit more sense than mapping front-mid-back to m-n-N, 'cause I just
don't see a motivation for the lip closure required for [m]. Maybe
front *rounded* vowels could induce [m] in all positions, if one
wanted to add front rounded vowels.) Nasalization also interacts with
syllable length; like the induced plain stops, induced [n] and [N]
will steal length from a long nucleus and become geminated.

Successive non-breathy nasal vowels in different syllables induce an
epenthetic [R]. Why? Because that's what I discovered I naturally do
when trying to pronounce them! I don't know what exactly the
articulatory phonetic justification, but there must be one!

Rhotic vowels get a little complicated, due to interaction with other
qualities. With combined rhotic+nasal vowels, the coda consonants are
ordered R-N.
High front non-nasal vowels (/i/) induce [4] word-medially, and [r\]
word finally or with nasalization. Low non-back non-nasal vowels (/a/)
induce [r\], which is ambisyllabic word-medially unless it is produced
by a non-breathy vowel followed by a breathy vowel (with an induced
[h] onset). Nasal mid vowels induce [z`] (which may evolve towards
[Z]). Back vowels (/u/) induce [R] or [R\], which like [r\] is
ambisyllabic unless followed an induced onset [h] or paired with
nasalization.

Meanwhile, tautosyllabic vowels can turn into glides. A /i/ becomes
[j], while short /u/ turns into [w]. In long syllables, medial vowels
are glided first, such that, e.g., /uia/ becomes [uja], not [wia].
Sequences of /iii/ become [ji:] and /uuu/ become [wu:]' sequences of
/aaa/ must be broken into two syllables, either [a:.a] or [a.a:].

That provides a phonetic consonant inventory of:

Stops: [t], [k], [?]
Fricatives/affricates: [ts] [h], [x], [z`]/[Z]
Nasals: [m], [n], [N]
Rhotics: [R], [r\], [4]
Glide: [w], [j]

which really doesn't look that bad! It's not all that different from Mohawk.

But it could be mostly-unambiguously (save for specifying syllable
boundaries) purely as a string of vowels from a 24-character all-vowel
alphabet; or perhaps a featural script with three basic vowels, and
diacritics for the various combinations of nasal, rhotic, and breathy
features, and maybe length.

You could also pick out phonemes like /t/ -> [t, k, ?, ts, x], /n/ ->
[n, m, N], /r/ -> /R, r\, 4, Z/, and /h/ -> [h], and have a small
alphabet of 3 vowels and 4 consonants with tons of wildly varying
allophones, which for most practical purposes would function
essentially identically to the featural script, where some consonants
are restricted to morpheme-final position Just Because, and there are
complex rules about how consonants and vowels mutually influence each
other's pronunciation. Or you could divide up the consonants as /t/ ->
[t, ts, k, ?], /h/ -> /h, x/, /z/ -> /Z/, /n/ -> [n, m, N], /r/ -> /R,
r\, 4/, which makes the allophone groups look a little more
cohesive... but then you notice a bunch of them are in complementary
distribution, and you can in fact explain everything with just the
vowel features anyway....

That last option might be the best for an in-world description of the
language, as it is analyzed by its own native speakers. And the one
would get to play the role of a field linguist re-analyzing the
language as underlyingly consonant-less based on the limited
distribution of consonants phones and the related vowel features.

-l.

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April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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