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CONLANG  April 2017, Week 4

CONLANG April 2017, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Allative and other local cases

From:

BPJ <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 22 Apr 2017 21:50:35 +0200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (179 lines)

Den 2017-04-22 kl. 20:26, skrev R A Brown:
> 
> Another conlang to look forward to    :)

While you are waiting you might enjoy this little essay on Sohlob cases which I found this afternoon.

Those for whom the formatting/typography is ruined, and others too, may want to get the PDF version:

<https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9VeuxWpvSfGWmdBaGdZdU5iX0k/view?usp=sharing>

Sohlob case endings
10 February 2014, 28 April 2015, 22 April 2017

## Origin

### ‘Primary’ case suffixes

Proto-Sohlob is thought to have had a very simple case system with only
five cases, referred to as ‘primary cases’ including the unmarked
absolutive:

  case           suffix   gloss        function(s)
  -------------- -------- ------------ --------------------------------------------------------------
  Absolutive     _*-∅_                 Animate agent, animate patient, inanimate patient, vocative.
  Separative     _*-N_    ‘from’       Motion away, (point of) origin.
  Locative       _*-t_    ‘at/in’      Location.
  Lative         _*-s_    ‘(in)to’     Motion towards, recipient.
  ?Instructive   _*-r_    ‘with, by’   Instrument, means, motion across or along, inanimate agent.

(The symbol _*N_ denotes a syllable-final nasal with undetermined place
of articulation. In Kijieb word-final _*N_ was probably realized as
nasalization of the preceding vowel, and it may have had that value
already in Proto-Sohlob.)

### ‘Secondary’ case suffixes (postpositions)

These ‘primary’ case suffixes could be augmented by what probably were
original enclitic postpositions. Already in Kijieb these clitics could
be combined with any of the primary case suffixes to convey many more
precise shades of meaning, but they were still clearly agglutinative and
were often written with a word separation sign between them and the
preceding word. In the later languages, except Yahab, these clitics have
as a result of the normal sound changes of the languages fused into
largely non- decomposable clusters with the primary case endings into
what is called ‘secondary case endings’.

In Kijieb the unaugmented primary case suffixes of the local cases were
still used with stative verbs, but unlike the so-called ?instructive
which remained in full use in Kijieb, already with a purely instrumental
function, the primary local case endings are all lost in the later
languages due to the loss of final -V(C). It was a matter of debate
among Sohlshan philologists whether the final consonants _*-N, *-t, *-s_
were lost before or simultaneously with the stem-final vowels. The
separative ending _“-n”_ was in all likelihood in the process of being
lost already in Kijieb as the ‘nasal dot’ denoting it is often omitted —
perhaps somewhat more often than before a consonant inside a word. It
should be noted that /t/ and /s/ probably had allophones [ʔ] and [h]
respectively already in Kijieb, and these may have been lost in
word-final position already in late Kijieb but preserved in spelling.
There is no trace of them in Old Chidilib, although the script of that
language would have been capable of expressing them.

In the later languages there are also a set of ‘stative’ cases which
were innovated by suffixing the Habitual stem of the verb _*pïrw-_ to
the primary case endings. The stative case endings are unlike the other
secondary endings full syllables since they are descended from a
disyllabic form, but the initial consonant of _*pïrwa_ has fused with
the preceding primary case suffixes like in the other secondary cases
and unlike in Kijieb the cliticized verb stem has lost all person and
mood marking; Sohlshan grammarians always treated them as cases on an
equal footing with the local cases as they had done before the advent of
Kijieb scholarship. Fiendierzoghd was of the opinion that the primary
local cases became obsolete as a result of the rise of these new stative
cases. There is no simple English gloss for _*pïrw-_. With a lative
argument it means ‘to become, to enter a state’, with a locative
argument it means ‘to be (in a state)’, and with a separative argument
it means ‘to cease to be in a state’. There are no known instances of
_pirw-_ with an instrumental argument in Kijieb. Compare the certainly
related Kjb _spir-_ ‘call’ with an old causative prefix. Fiendierzoghd
believed that the original meaning of _*pïr(w)-_ was ‘come/stay’. It is
not unique among Sohlob verbs in having what from an English point of
view is different meanings depending on the case of its argument.

The local and stative cases of Classical Sohlob are shown in the table
below.

  --------------- ------------- ------------------ --------------- ------------------ -------------------
                                *from*             *at/in*         *(in)to*           *by/via*
                                _*-N_              _*-t_           _*-s_              _*-r_ ‘with, *by’
                                Separative         Locative        Lative             Instrumental
                                                                                      
  *interior*      _*-ki_        _-nčⁱ_             _-čⁱ_           _-škⁱ_             _-lčⁱ_
                  ‘in’          ‘out of’           ‘in(side)’      ‘into’             ‘through’
                                Elative            Inessive        Illative           Perlative
                                                                                      
  *surface*       _*-si_        _-nAhⁱ_            _-štⁱ_          _-šⁱ_              _-ḽⁱ_
                  ‘on’          ‘off’              ‘(up)on’        ‘onto’             ‘across, over’
                                Delative           Superessive     Sublative          Vialis
                                                                                      
  *adjacency*     _*-ta_        _-ntᵃ_             _-tᵃ_           _-stᵃ_             _-rtᵃ_
                  ‘at’          ‘from’             ‘at, beside’    ‘(un)to’           ‘along’
                                Ablative           Adessive        Allative           Prosecutive
                                                                                      
  *association*   _*-gu_        _-ŋᵘ_              _-ȟtᵘ_          _-skᵘ_             _-rȟᵘ_
                  ‘ensemble’    ‘of, from among’   ‘among’         ‘together with’    ‘along with’
                                ?Genitive          ?Consociative   Associative        Comitative
                                ?Desociative                                          
                                                                                      
  *state*         _*-pïrwa_     _-mpAr_            _-ftAr_         _-spAr_            _-lpAr_
                  ‘be/become’   ‘from being’       ‘being, as’     ‘(turning) into’   ‘by being’
                                Exessive           Essive          Translative        Prolative
  --------------- ------------- ------------------ --------------- ------------------ -------------------

Remark
    While the _l_ in the perlative _-lč_ < _*-r-ki_ is regular the _l_
    in the prolative _-lpAr_ < _*-r-pïrwa_ is a result of the
    dissimilation of _r_ before another _r_. Dialectal Chidilib _-rpul_
    has the opposite dissimilation.

### The accusative and instrumental cases

The later languages — probably already Old Chidilib — also developed two
new grammatical cases. In Kijieb — and in Proto-Sohlob — there was an
enclitic particle _-ya_ which denoted that the thematic role of the noun
phrase it was attached to was ‘inverted’. In the grammar of Kijieb and
Proto-Sohlob the canonical thematic role of animates was as agent, and
that of inanimates was as patient, and _-ya_ denoted that an animate was
a patient or that an inanimate was an agent. Only one participant in a
clause could take the particle; inanimate agents outranked animate
patients when _-ya_ was assigned, so that all inanimate agents took the
particle, but animate patients took it only when the agent was also
animate (which it of course most often was). Inanimate agents were also
marked with the ?Instructive/Instrumental case, so that in practice
inanimate agents ended in _-rya_ and inversion-marked animate patients
ended in _-ya_ only. When [rʲ] became /l/ and final unstressed vowels
were lost inanimate agents came to end in _-l_ while animate patients of
animate agents came to end in _-y_. These endings were reinterpreted as
ergative and accusative respectively, so that the morphosyntactic
alignment of the later languages is split ergative. (Yahab has a single
suffix _-ai_ or _-oi_ marking both ergative and accusative, but the
pattern of assignment is analogous to that of _-l_ and _-y_ in the
Northern- Central languages. The old _-r_ suffix (_-l_ in Yahab) is also
preserved as a purely instrumental case.

### Paradigm

Here follows the noun _hïlᵘ_ _*sïryu_ ‘city’ (animate, and hence lacking
an ergative) fully declined. Some of the prepositions in the
translations are rather rough and forced translations.

  --------------- -------------- ---------- ---------------------------------
  Absolutive      *sïryu         hïl        ‘city, cities’
  Instrumental    *sïryur        hïlur      ‘with a city, cities’
  Accusative      *sïryuya       hïluy      ‘to a city, cities’
  Elative         *sïryuŋki      hïlïnč     ‘out of a city, cities’
  Inessive        *sïryutki      hïlïč      ‘in(side) a city, cities’
  Illative        *sïryuski      hïlïšk     ‘into a city, cities’
  Perlative       *sïryurki      hïlïlč     ‘through a city, cities’
  Delative        *sïryunsi      hïlnïh     ‘off a city, cities’
  Superessive     *sïryutsi      hïlïšt     ‘(up)on a city, cities’
  Sublative       *sïryussi      hïlïš      ‘onto a city, cities’
  Vialis          *sïryursi      hïlïḽ      ‘across a city, cities‘
  Ablative        *sïryunta      hïlunt     ‘from a city, cities’
  Adessive        *sïryutta      hïlut      ‘at a city, cities’
  Allative        *sïryusta      hïlust     ‘(un)to a city, cities’
  Prosecutive     *sïryurta      hïlurt     ‘along a city, cities’
  ?Genitive       *sïryungu      hïluŋ      ‘of a city, cities‘
  ?Consociative   *sïryudgu      hïluȟt     ‘among cities‘
  Associative     *sïryuzgu      hïlusk     ‘together with a city, cities‘
  Comitative      *sïryurgu      hïlurȟ     ‘along with a city, cities‘
  ?Exessive       *sïryumpïrwa   hïlïmpïr   ‘from being a city, cities‘
  Essive          *sïryutpïrwa   hïlïftïr   ‘as a city, cities‘
  Translative     *sïryuspïrwa   hïlïspïr   ‘(turning) into a city, cities‘
  Prolative       *sïryurpïrwa   hïlïlpïr   ‘by being a city, cities‘
  --------------- -------------- ---------- ---------------------------------


/bpj

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July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
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July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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