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CONLANG  September 2017, Week 3

CONLANG September 2017, Week 3

Subject:

Re: Why doesn't English permit tl or dl as true consonant combinations?

From:

PETER BLEACKLEY <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Tue, 19 Sep 2017 09:04:13 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (88 lines)

Diachronically, I predict the rule would be "Words that did not carry stress when þ and ð were allophones." In fact, sychronically, it may simply be "unstressed words".

Numerals do carry stress, which is why "Thirty" is not affected. The interesting thing is that in dialects where "The" may cliticize onto the following word, it cliticizes as þ, not ð. I would guess that the clitic is seen as a unit with the host word, which does take stress, thus mandating a voiceless dental fricative in the onset.

----Original message----
From : [log in to unmask]
Date : 19/09/2017 - 00:08 (BST)
To : [log in to unmask]
Subject : Re: Why doesn't English permit tl or dl as true consonant combinations?

On 17 September 2017 at 20:24, Alex Fink <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> On Wed, 6 Sep 2017 18:44:48 +0100, And Rosta <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
> >On 6 September 2017 at 11:54, PETER BLEACKLEY <
> [log in to unmask]
> >> wrote:
> >
> >> In Old English and Middle English, many words ended with an e, which has
> >> been muted in modern English. Function words are generally unstressed,
> >> which makes the word boundary before them weaker, so the rule
> "Fricatives
> >> are voiced between vowels" spread to the þ in function words. However,
> >> since there is a following consonant in "through", þ could not be
> >> interpreted as intervocalic there.
> >
> >As I think Alex noted, at some point this purely phonological phenomenon
> >(whose character you describe) must have become transformed into a rule
> >sensitive to word-class, since only this would account for how come
> initial
> >/D/ is entirely absent from normal (i.e. 'cromulent') open-class words and
> >for how come initial simplex /T/ is (almost) entirely absent from
> >non-open-class words (the synchronic exceptions are _thir-(ty/teen)_,
> which
> >presumably arose metathetically subsequent to the death of the th-voicing
> >rule). The question then is whether, once this word-class-sensitive rule
> >arose, the failure of /Dr-/ to ensue was merely accidental (as Alex had
> >seemed to suggest) or rather (as I countered) because original /Tr-/ never
> >satisfied the phonological conditions on the application of the
> >word-class-sensitive rule (-- the aetiology of those phonological
> >conditions being as per your description).
>
> There's a question of what word class the statement of the rule should be
> extended to.  If numbers belonged in it, then _thousand_ should also have
> been subject (unless that escapes by virtue of having been a noun?).  I
> don't know another word which is diagnostic for whether prepositions
> belonged in it: if _through_ is the only preposition with /T-/, that fails
> to determine whether it was the cluster or being a preposition that blocked
> application.


In PDE, there is -- I would contend -- no syntactically coherent way of
capturing word classes containing eth-initial words but excluding
prepositions. Whether that holds also for the th-voicing stage of the
language, I don't know, but a reasonable default hypothesis is that it does.

In PDE, numbers for powers of ten (100 upwards, but not 10 itself) seem to
be an open class, including _myriad, googol_ and _-illion_ words
(squillion, gazillion, bajillion etc) and lack most of the peculiar
properties of true number words. If that state of affairs obtained also at
the time of the syntactically-conditioned th-voicing rule, then _thousand_
would be exempt (but _thirty, thirteen_ would not), if, as I would suggest,
the syntactic condition was whether the word belonged to an open or closed
class. ('Open' and 'closed' are here meant as atheoretical descriptions
serving as a proxy for a theoretical distinction between 'lexical' and
'functional' words.)

An interesting question is how come some dialects came to have definite
article /T/ (but /D/ in other th-initial function words) -- /Tospik@l/ 'the
hospital' is a commonly cited example. I've not had the opportunity to
study anybody with that feature (except as a relic in fixed phrases) so I
know next to nowt about it.

On the subject of initial eth, I might add that it has various curious
properties besides its absence from cromulent words. It does not th-front
to /v/ (in adult lects), unlike other, true eths elsewhere. To a greater or
lesser extent varying among lects, it is subject to th-dropping of a sort
analogous to h-dropping (e.g. "better than" can rhyme with "veteran"). I
conjecture that h and initial eth must share some phonological property
that other segments lack, and that initial eth has almost nothing in common
with other eths phonologically apart from similarities of phonetic
realization. (Given those h-/th-/wh- paradigms, like _hence, thence,
whence_, it would be fitting if initial (h)w- also shared that phonological
property, but alas it doesn't.)


--And.

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