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CONLANG  November 2017, Week 4

CONLANG November 2017, Week 4

Subject:

Sketch of Nenyuvai, part 2

From:

Tim Smith <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 28 Nov 2017 22:03:00 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (237 lines)

Hi all,

This is the second installment of a preliminary sketch of the conlang
that I'm currently most actively working on, tentatively named
Nenyuvai.  The first installment, which I posted on 23 September,
covered the general background, overall typology, phonology and
orthography.  I'm not sure how many more installments there will be,
because I'm not sure how much detail I'll end up going into.  (I'm
trying to keep it brief, but that's always hard, especially for me.)

I'd like to start by apologizing for the long delay between
installments.  My original plan was to post one every week or so, but
it's turning out to be a bigger job than I thought.  (There's nothing
like trying to explain something in writing, as succinctly as possible,
to make you aware of parts of it you don't know yourself, but didn't
know that you didn't know.)  I also keep getting sidetracked with other
arcane projects, like trying to understand what's currently known about
how the ancient Greek musical modes worked, and to use Scala (a freeware
tuning software package) to hear what they actually sounded like.

IV.  Morphology

IV.A.  Word classes

Nenyuvai has the following word classes and subclasses.  In this list,
an asterisk indicates an open class.  Some of these subclasses can be
further subdivided, but these are mostly cross-cutting subdivisions that
do not lend themselves to this kind of hierarchical listing; therefore I
am not including them in this listing, but will discuss them in the
section on the appropriate class or subclass.

Nominals:
- nouns*
--- proper names*
--- common nouns*
- pronouns
- determiners
- quantifiers

Verbals:
- verbs*
--- active verbs*
--- stative verbs*
--- mixed verbs*
- auxiliaries (a.k.a. light verbs)
- copulas

Particles:
- adverbs
- prepositions
- conjunctions
- interjections (a.k.a. illocutionary particles)
- miscellaneous particles

Nominals and verbals undergo various kinds of inflection, while
particles are invariant in form.  Note that there is no separate class
(open or closed) of adjectives, although determiners and quantifiers can
behave either like pronouns or like attributive adjectives; in general,
this language uses stative verbs in lieu of predicative adjectives, and
relative clauses in lieu of attributive adjectives.  Note also that
adverbs are a closed class; the functions of open-class adverbs (that
is, adverbs derived from adjectives, in languages that have adjectives)
are performed either by prepositional phrases, with nominalized stative
verbs as their objects, or by various kinds of subordinate clauses.

IV.B.  Nominals

IV.B.1.  Nouns

Nouns are inflected for number and state.  There are two numbers
(singular and plural) and three states (absolute, construct, and
pronominal).  (I have borrowed the term "state" and the terms for the
various states from the terminology used in traditional grammars of
Semitic languages.)  There is a distinction between animate and
inanimate nouns, as mentioned below, but this distinction is overtly
marked only on determiners, not on nouns.  There are no case
distinctions, since the argument alignment is hierarchical; there is a
distinction between proximate and obviative, but this distinction is
marked only by word order and context, not morphologically.

The class of nouns can be subclassified in several ways.  These
subclasses do not form a clear hierarchy, but are (for the most part)
orthogonal; they cross-cut each other, so that one subclass cannot be
treated as a subset of another.  These subdivisions are not marked on
the noun, and so are not considered inflectional categories.  They
include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:
- proper names vs. common nouns;
- count nouns vs. mass nouns (uncountables);
- animate vs. inanimate nouns (note: some nouns may be treated as
animate in some contexts and inanimate in others; this may or may not
reflect a difference in meaning);
- possessibility classes, based on the distinction between alienable and
inalienable possession: some nouns can only be possessed alienably; some
only inalienably; some either way (with a difference in meaning); and
some cannot be possessed at all;
- number classes: whether, and if so, how, a noun is marked as singular
or plural.

IV.B.1.a.  Number

There are two subclasses of nouns that do not take number marking:
proper names, which are inherently singular (in Nenyuvai, you can't say
"two Anns"; you can only say "two women named Ann"), and "mass nouns" or
"uncountables" (e.g., _kulya_ "water"), which are semantically neither
singular nor plural, but which are grammatically treated as singular, in
that any determiners that refer to them or modify them are singular.

But the great majority of nouns are "count nouns", which are marked for
number, and which can be grouped into several subclasses according to
how they form their plurals (or, for a very small but important group of
count nouns for which the plural is the unmarked form, how they form
their singulars).

IV.B.1.a.(1)  Count nouns with unmarked singular and marked plural

The majority of nouns mark the plural by total or partial reduplication
of the first syllable: for example, _gèz_ "book", _gegèz_ "books";
_veldimah_ "teacher", _veveldimah_ "teachers".  If the first syllable
starts with a cluster rather than a single consonant, the second
consonant of the cluster is dropped in reduplication: _tyèl_ "daughter",
_tetyèl_ "daughters" (not _*tyetyèl_).  (As you may remember from the
section on phonology in the previous installment, the only permitted
syllable-initial clusters consist of an obstruent followed by a liquid
or glide.)  If the initial consonants of the first two syllables are
such that they could be combined (in that order) to form a permitted
syllable-initial cluster, the vowel of the second occurrence of the
reduplicated first syllable is dropped so that the two consonants do, in
fact, form such a cluster: _taràh_ "man", _tatràh_ "men" (not _*tataràh_).

Although this pattern is by far the most common form of plural marking,
there are several other patterns that occur unpredictably; thus the
plural of a noun must be memorized along with the singular.  Among these
patterns are the following:
- infixation of _-ha-_  or _-ya-_ before the stressed syllable: _nalín_
"woman", _nahalín_ "women"; _atán_ "god", _ayatán_ "gods"; _etín_
"goddess", _eyatín_ "goddesses";
- a suffix _-ya_, with a shift of stress to the syllable before the
suffix (this tends to occur with nouns whose singular already contains
reduplication): _máma_ "mother", _mamáya_ "mothers";
- this suffix in combination with raising of the vowel in the formerly
stressed syllable: _tsóma_ "priest", _tsumáya_ "priests"; _tséma_
"priestess", _tsiméya_ "priestesses";
- replacement of a long vowel by a diphthong in a stressed final
syllable: _kadán_ "chief", _kadain_ "chiefs".

[Brief digression into derivational morphology:  As the above examples
show, Nenyuvai has some pairs of nouns whose meanings differ only in the
sex of the referent, and whose forms differ only (with a few exceptions)
in the vowels, with back vowels being associated with the male member of
the pair and front vowels with the female.  (This is _not_ a "gender"
distinction in the linguistic sense of the term, because: (a) it applies
only to a very small subset of nouns; (b) it does not trigger any kind
of agreement.) The relevance of this to number marking will become clear
shortly.]

IV.B.1.a.(2)  Count nouns with unmarked plural and marked singular

There are a few nouns for which the plural is the unmarked default, with
the singular marked by a suffix _-(a)t_.  Most of these are
gender-neutral kin terms formed by combining two gender-specific nouns
of the type mentioned in the brief digression above (sometimes with a
plural suffix, but more often not).  For example:
_máma_ "mother" + _bába_ "father" > _mambabáya_ "parents" (singular
_mambabáyat_ "parent");
_saráf_ "brother" + _seríf_ "sister" > _safseríf_ "siblings" (sing.
_safserívat_ "sibling");
_tál_ "son" + _tyèl_ "daughter" > _taltyèl_ "children, offspring" (sing.
_taltyellat_ "child") (note: this means "child" only in the sense of
"son or daughter"; there is a totally different noun _tíka_ meaning
"child" as opposed to "adult").

IV.B.1.a.(3)  Mass nouns and singulatives

The same suffix that is used to form singulars of default-plural nouns
(see above) can also be used to form singulatives from mass nouns.  For
example, from _kulya_ "water" we can derive _kulyat_, which, depending
on the context, might mean "glass of water", "drop of water", or some
other countable unit of water.  Singulatives are count nouns, with
plurals formed in the usual way; the plural of _kulyat_ is _kukulyat_. 
I'm not sure yet how productive this process is, i.e., whether
singulatives can be derived from all mass nouns or only from some.  I do
know that the meaning of a singulative is not totally predictable from
the meaning of the corresponding mass noun; for example, the mass noun
_marén_ means "light" (regarded figuratively as a substance), but its
derived singulative _marénat_ (plural _mamarénat_) does not mean "ray of
light, beam of light" as one might expect, but rather "lamp, light
source, object emitting light".

IV.B.1.b.  State

State is a grammatical category which indicates whether or not a noun is
inalienably possessed by an immediately following constituent. 
(Alienable possession is shown by a different construction; both kinds
of possession will be discussed more fully in the section on syntax.) 
If a noun is unpossessed, it is in the absolute state.  If it is
possessed by another noun, or by a determiner or a free pronoun, or if
it is modified by a relative clause, it is in the construct state. 
(Relative clauses in Nenyuvai are treated grammatically as inalienable
possessors of their head nouns.  As I mentioned earlier, they are the
functional equivalent of attributive adjectives -- instead of "the old
man", one says literally "the man who is old" -- and therefore occur
much more frequently than in languages that have adjectives.)  If it is
possessed by a bound pronoun, it is in the pronominal state.

The absolute state is the unmarked default.  The construct state is
marked by a suffix _-u_ (with some phonotactic complications that I
won't go into here).  The pronominal state is marked by the appropriate
pronominal suffix.  For example:

Absolute state: _karás_ "friend" (depending on context, this can mean "a
friend" or "the friend")

Construct state: _karázu Yán_ "John's friend"

Pronominal state:
           _karasku_ "my friend"
           _karassi_ "your(sg.) friend"
           _karasta_ "his/her/its(proximate) friend"
           _karazna_ "his/her/its(obviative) friend"
and so on for all the other possible pronominal suffixes.

Because of the phonotactic complications in the way certain nouns form
their construct state, and because of the unpredictability of the
plural, the glossary entry for an "ordinary" noun (that is, a
default-singular count noun) gives three forms: the absolute singular,
the construct singular, and the absolute plural.  For example:

karás, karázu, kakrás -- friend.

Well, that's it for nouns.  I was going to go on to the morphology of
other kinds of nominals (pronouns, free and bound; determiners;
quantifiers), but this is getting rather long even by my standards, so I
think I'll put those off to the next installment (which hopefully won't
be as long in coming as this one was).  So, until next time...

-- Tim

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September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
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August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
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July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
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May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
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October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
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September 2000, Week 1
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June 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
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March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
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September 1998, Week 3

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