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CONLANG  February 2018, Week 2

CONLANG February 2018, Week 2

Subject:

An Exploration of Relative Clauses

From:

Logan Kearsley <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 15:14:13 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (206 lines)

In Valaklwuuxa, all NPs are occupied by headless relative clauses. You
could therefore be excused for thinking that relative clauses
generally ought to be a pretty simple subject, since you have to use
them so often, and I ought to have all of the different functions and
types of relative clauses well worked out. But, you would be mistaken.

See, because *every* NP is occupied by a relative clause, there is no
explicit relativizer distinct from normal determiners. That means
that, without some extra morphosyntactic machinery, it is impossible
to distinguish a relative clause that is supposed to serve as an
argument to a predicate all by itself (i.e., a headless clause) from a
clause that is descriptive of, or co-indexed with, some other clause.
So really, several types of attributive relative clause have to be
dealt with independently from normal clausal arguments, just like they
do in a language like English which has nouns.

Fortunately, the Salish languages on which Valaklwuuxa syntax is
modeled *also* have that problem. Unfortunately, (but unsurprisingly)
the solutions are numerous and complicated (Lillooet amazingly has
*six* distinct types of relative clauses, which are probably at least
partly attributable to borrowing structures from multiple neighboring
languages that use different strategies). After reading a large amount
of literature on clausal nominalization and relativization strategies
in several Salish languages, I have come up with the following
categorization of strategies that I could employ in Valaklwuuxa:


Double-Determiner Strategies:

Relative clauses that carry a duplicated determiner (in addition to
the determiner introducing the matrix NP) are typical of Interior
Salish. In particular, they are used by Thompson Salish, from which I
took a good bit of inspiration.

Thompson Salish has both head-initial (or postnominal) relative
clauses, and head-final (or prenominal) relative clauses, which differ
in focus (in the sense of their interaction with focus-sensitive
lexical items like "only"). It might seem at first that this
distinction would naturally be neutralized in a language like
Valaklwuuxa which explicitly has no nouns, and indeed it could be, but
it doesn't *have* to be, since one can still maintain a distinction in
branching direction; I.e., is a DP containing two relative clauses,
one the head and one being descriptive, structured like [DP [[DP ATTR]
NOM]], or like [DP [NOM [DP ATTR]]]. And while the literature I read
does not mention this as a formal restriction, it appears based on the
corpus of examples presented that prenominal clauses are syntactically
distinguished from postnominal clauses in more than just their
relative placement, in a way that makes a lot of sense for
Valaklwuuxa: specifically, a prenominal relative clause can *only*
contain pronominal arguments (i.e., they look a lot like single-word
participial constructions), while postnominal clauses can contain
additional nested arguments / clauses.

E.g., from _Focus and relativization: Head-final relatives in Thompson
Salish_ by Karsten A. Koch, we have this example of a postnominal
relative clause:

DET NP LINK DET REL-CLAUSE

ecítx^w tɬscuwéɬx^ws ɬJóhn
e=cítx^w t=ɬ=s=cuw-éɬx^w=s ɬ=Jóhn
DET=house LINK=DET=NOM=build-house=3PoCl DET=John
‘the house which John built’

which contains the explicit nominal argument "John" nested inside the
relative clause.

Cf. this prenominal construction:

ɬeʔsk^wnem tekéks
ɬ=eʔ=s=k^wn-em t=e=kéks
DET=2SG.PoCl=NOM=get-MDL LINK=DET=cake
‘the cake that you bought’

Now, since Valaklwuuxa makes no distinction between a clause like "DET
get-2SG" ~ "that which you got" and "DET cake-3SG" ~ "that which
is-a-cake", it turns out that it would not be possible to reliably
identify prenominal constructions of that form as distinct from simple
postnominal constructions... so if I introduce an explicit
Double-Determiner relative clause system, with an explicit
linking/attributive morpheme of some sort, it will necessarily appear
to be of the postnominal variety--with the restriction that that
construction could *only* be used when the head of the NP does not
contain any internal arguments! I.e., it has to actually "look like a
noun" (or a participle).

Now, if there's going to be an explicit attributive morpheme, you
might wonder why the determiner needs to be doubled at all--why can't
the second determiner just be replaced by the attributive marker?
Well, it turns out that the two determiners *don't actually have to
match*. Rather, the determiner for the embedded clause should reflect
the time of the embedded clause, while the determiner for the matrix
DP should be appropriate for the matrix clause. For example, if you
bought something, whose identity I did not know at the time, but which
I later found out to be a cake, I might refer to it as

"the cake LINK a thing you bought"

where the matrix determiner "the" indicates that the speaker has a
specific item in mind, but the relative clause determiner "a"
indicates that the speaker was not aware of the identity of the item
at the time of the descriptive event. In contrast,

"the cake LINK the thing you bought"

would indicate that the speaker always knew what the specific item
was, but is now choosing to identify it more specifically as a cake.

(Also, replacing the determiner with the attributive marker would make
the attributive marker look an awful lot like an explicit relativizer,
which Salish languages as a rule don't have--probably because, as in
Valaklwuuxa, relative clauses of some sort or other are *so dang
common*, and thus heavily reduced.)

The closest thing to an attributive clausal construction that
Valaklwuuxa *already* has is just simple coordination. I.e., "the
house which John built" would be rendered as either "That which
is-a-house, and which John built" or "That which John built, and which
is-a-house." Implicitly, this permits clauses of any sort to come in
any order, but it doesn't inherently encode anything about focus or
topicality--is this complex noun phrase *about the house* or *about
the thing John built*? Coordination can occur at either the NP or the
DP level, so this can show up in the guise of either a
Double-Determiner or a Single-Determiner strategy. Which provides a
nice segue into...


Single-Determiner Strategies:

First, we've got headless relative clauses, which are the workhorse of
Valaklwuuxa grammar, and already well-described. In light of the
discussion of Double-Determiner strategies above, these can be divided
into two sub-types: "things that look like nouns" and "things that are
more complicated". I.e., simple clauses consisting of a single
predicate with strictly pronominal arguments (which must be terminated
with the clitic <=la> if they are unaccusative intransitive), and
complex clauses that contain embedded DP arguments.

As with the double-determiner strategies, single-determiner strategies
can be divided into prenominal, and postnominal (with both existing in
the same language). For example, from _A Unified Analysis of Relative
Clauses in St’át’imcets_ by Henry Davis:

Prenominal
DET [CLAUSE NP]
ta=[[ats’x-en-án]=a smúlhats]
DET=[[see-TR-1SG.ERG]=EXIS woman]
‘the woman I saw’

Postnominal
DET [NP CLAUSE]
ta=[smúlhats=a [áts’x-en-an]]
DET=[woman =EXIS [see-TR-1SG.ERG]]
‘the woman I saw’

Note that sorta-kinda-circumdeterminer thing glossed "EXIS".

When I first looked at these constructions, I was thinking that the
deep and abiding lack of N/V distinction on Valaklwuuxa would make
them darn near impossible to implement, because

1. Valakwluuxa has serial verb constructions.
2. The most common inflection affixes, for 3p-3p polypersonal
agreement, are 0 morphs

so in general it would be very hard to determine where a serial
predicate string forming one clause ends, and where the second, either
head or relative, clause begins. However, recall the clitic <=la>,
mentioned above as being obligatory for terminating certain
things-that-look-like-nouns. I started out calling it the generic
"article", and I've recently been thinking of it as the "absolute
state clitic", indicating that a particular phrase does not govern any
further modifiers; Because, well, that *seemed* to be a good
explanation of the distribution that I just intuitively felt was right
for it. But now it appears that <=la> might actually correspond fairly
closely to "EXIS" in the Lillooet glosses above! It's not an absolute
state marker, it's some sort of thing that marks the boundary of a
clause serving as the head of an NP / semantic head of a DP *precisely
so that additional modifiers can be added to the containing DP!*

However, the thoroughgoing lack of N/V distinction does mean that the
prenominal and postnominal are again neutralized--but in this case,
there is no need to restrict either the left or right positions to
"looking noun like". Any old complex clause could fill either slot,
though I imagine ergonomics will dictate pushing heavier clauses to
the right most of the time.

Attributive relative clauses of this type would be identified simply
by starting with a bare predicate, or a predicate with a preceding
adverb--no preposition, no determiner, no subject clitic (because that
will have been gapped). There is a slight risk of ambiguity with a
postnominal relative clause being misinterpreted as a matrix clause
with an explicit, non-pronominal subject (which would also start with
a bare predicate), but I suspect that will be infrequent enough not to
worry about. I'll probably have to write a lot of sample text to be
sure, but my expectation is that it is far more likely to result in
occasional short garden-path misparses than it is to result in genuine
ambiguity.

Now, the big question I still need to answer is: What are the
functional differences between DP-conjunction, NP-conjunction,
double-determiner, and single-determiner relative clause constructions
in Valaklwuuxa?

-l.

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December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
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November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
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July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
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September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
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July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
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October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
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