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CONLANG  April 2018, Week 4

CONLANG April 2018, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Syllable Structure

From:

Aidan Aannestad <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 25 Apr 2018 10:20:29 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (137 lines)

Syllable structure is actually a fascinating and complex topic; one
which I'm sure I don't fully understand. (I mostly work with CV(V)
structures in my own languages!) I'll try and summarise a bit of what I
remember about it - and hopefully write something that's useful to
conlangers of all levels.

Syllable structure is, in short, what is allowed in a syllable, and
where. It's typically schematised as a series of capital letters, where
C means 'a consonant', V means 'a vowel', and parentheses indicate
optionality. However, there's much, much more complexity than a simple
statement such as 'this language allows (C)(C)V(V)(C)' would imply. For
a brand new conlanger, that's about as far as you need to go, though -
knowing to schematise it and fit your words to these structures, and
further knowing that you mostly need a vowel or something acting like
one in every syllable, is quite enough for a simple conlang.

You can go much farther than that, though.

At its most basic, a syllable is divided into two parts - an /onset/ and
a /rime/. The onset is everything before the vowel; the rime is the
vowel and everything after it. The rime is further divisible into the
/nucleus/, which is the vowel or whatever's acting kind of like one, and
the /coda/, which is the consonants following the vowel. Every syllable
at minimum needs a nucleus, though it doesn't necessarily need a vowel
to be the nucleus - see English 'doesn't' /dɜz.nt/, which has /n/ as its
second syllable's nucleus.

Typically - with a few exceptions - syllables are organised by what's
called /sonority/, which is basically the perceptual salience or
'loudness' of sounds. The nucleus is the sonority peak, and sonority
falls off towards the edges - indeed, in some theories, a syllable is
explicitly defined as being the space between sonority low points. The
sonority hierarchy is largely this, from most to least:
- Vowels
- Sonorant consonants (liquids and nasals)
- Voiced fricatives
- Voiceless fricatives
- Stops
Languages can vary on how far down the hierarchy a nucleus can be - some
languages only allow vowels, English allows vowels and sonorants, and a
couple Berber languages are famous for apparently allowing all the way
down to stops. Within complex onsets and codas - again with a few
exceptions - consonants are expected to become more sonorant closer to
the nucleus. For example, the English word /trend/ exemplifies this -
/t/ is less sonorous than /ɹ/, and /n/ is more sonorous than /d/. The
biggest exceptions to this generalisation are /s z/ (and other coronal
sibilants), which seem to be allowed outside lower-sonority consonants
on both ends in quite a few languages, English being one - /strand/ is
perfectly valid, even though the /s/ occurs outside the less-sonorous
/t/. In some languages, word edges may allow for /extrasyllabic/
consonants, which don't quite fit in a syllable - this allows for
English words like 'act' with two stops in a row, which would be invalid
inside a word without the /t/ becoming the onset of the next syllable.

Sometimes the string of sounds provided by building a word from
morphemes has sequences that can't be syllabified - for example, if you
only allow CV and you get a word with two consonants in a row, you have
a problem. This is where things like epenthesis come in - sounds can be
added in phonologically to help make things work out right. You might
find that a disallowed CC sequence is broken up by having a 'default'
vowel like /a/ or /ə/ inserted between the two consonants, or that it's
broken up by inserting a copy of a neighbouring vowel. Other repair
strategies involve just deleting one of the consonants, or having them
merge somehow (eg have /nt/ become /d/, with /n/'s voicing but /t/'s
stop-ness).

We often talk of syllables as having /weight/, which mostly means the
amount of stuff put into the rime. Weight is typically quantified into
units called /morae/, which are (basically) a measure of the time it
takes to say a certain syllable. Typically, one V or CV (or CCV etc)
syllable is one mora; (C)VV and (C)VC are two morae, and (C)VVC is
three; though exactly how things are counted can vary by language, and
many languages distinguish between one ('light') and more-than-one
('heavy') and don't really care about exactly how many. Codas with more
than one consonant may or may not count for more morae than the simple
presence of a coda would add.

Weight is relevant in several ways. First, languages can have maximum
syllable weights. For example, a language may allow (C)VV and (C)VC but
not (C)VVC, even though it does "have phonemic vowel length" - you can't
simply switch out a short vowel for a long vowel or diphthong, because
long vowels and diphthongs are associated with more structural positions
than a short vowel is. You may also find position-based weight
restrictions - for example, the last syllable of any word may be
prohibited from being heavy; or it may allow an extrasyllabic consonant,
as in Arabic, which allows (C)VVC only word-finally and nowhere else.
Second, weight has various prosodic consequences. In a language with
phonemic tone, a heavy syllable - especially one with a complex nucleus
rather than just a coda - provides more morae for tones to attach to,
and contour tones may require or cause a vowel to be long to fit all the
parts of the tone. In a language with phonemic stress, stress tends to
correlate with weight, and the language might have rules about heavy
syllables attracting stress (Latin's stress rule works this way), or
stressed syllables acquiring weight (one analysis has Norwegian and
Swedish doing this). Since stress (including secondary stress) tends to
proceed on an alternating stressed-unstressed-stressed-etc pattern, the
syllables between stresses (again, including secondary stress) may be
obligatorily light - or heavy syllables may cause deviations from the
alternating pattern (as seems to happen in English).

Going further down the rabbit hole (and this is the part I suggest
beginning conlangers really stop before), you can begin to explore
restrictions on what consonants can occur where in a syllable. For
example, codas may lose voicing distinctions, or onsets may restrict the
combinations of certain sounds. Autosegmental phonology explains this
through the concept of 'feature licensing', where phonemic features are
assigned to the syllable as a whole, and codas may license additional
features. My conlang Emihtazuu only licenses nasality as a coda feature,
which means that codas can only be a nasal with no place specification
(which it has to get from a following stop) or a default consonant /h/.
This is used to explain why English allows /tr/ as an onset but not /tl/
- the /l/ requires a laterality specification that apparently can't
coöccur with /t/ (but can with /p k/).

/Even/ further down the rabbit hole starts to get into things like the
autosegmental concept of 'timing tier' / 'skeletal tier', and things
like vowels attaching to consonant slots, or stranger things like
consonant slots that are empty but still demonstrably there, and some
yet stranger things. If you want to know more about those, just go read
the book (John Goldsmith's /Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology/) -
it's worth every cent you'll spend on it.

I hope that's not overwhelmingly much information! Ignore as much of
this as you feel you need to, and just come back to it as you gain more
familiarity with linguistic concepts.


On 2018/04/24 21:57, Space Unicorn J wrote:
> This is simple, I know a little about this but I wanted to know if someone
> could help me to understand Syllable Structure and tell me some tips and
> that, I think it’s a very interesting topic.
>
> I would like to know how to use this and examples of natural languages and
> your Conlangs!!!
>
> Thx.

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November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
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March 2004, Week 3
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February 2004, Week 1
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November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
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October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
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October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
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September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
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July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
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May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
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April 2003, Week 3
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April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
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December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
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February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
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December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
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August 2001, Week 3
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June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
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May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
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March 2001, Week 1
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January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
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January 2000, Week 1
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December 1999, Week 3
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December 1999, Week 1
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November 1999, Week 3
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November 1999, Week 1
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October 1999, Week 1
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March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
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February 1999, Week 1
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December 1998, Week 5
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