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CONLANG  April 2018, Week 4

CONLANG April 2018, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Syllable Structure

From:

Space Unicorn J <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 25 Apr 2018 20:22:11 +0000

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (144 lines)

Do you have any examples?

<[log in to unmask]>

> Syllable structure is actually a fascinating and complex topic; one
> which I'm sure I don't fully understand. (I mostly work with CV(V)
> structures in my own languages!) I'll try and summarise a bit of what I
> remember about it - and hopefully write something that's useful to
> conlangers of all levels.
>
> Syllable structure is, in short, what is allowed in a syllable, and
> where. It's typically schematised as a series of capital letters, where
> C means 'a consonant', V means 'a vowel', and parentheses indicate
> optionality. However, there's much, much more complexity than a simple
> statement such as 'this language allows (C)(C)V(V)(C)' would imply. For
> a brand new conlanger, that's about as far as you need to go, though -
> knowing to schematise it and fit your words to these structures, and
> further knowing that you mostly need a vowel or something acting like
> one in every syllable, is quite enough for a simple conlang.
>
> You can go much farther than that, though.
>
> At its most basic, a syllable is divided into two parts - an /onset/ and
> a /rime/. The onset is everything before the vowel; the rime is the
> vowel and everything after it. The rime is further divisible into the
> /nucleus/, which is the vowel or whatever's acting kind of like one, and
> the /coda/, which is the consonants following the vowel. Every syllable
> at minimum needs a nucleus, though it doesn't necessarily need a vowel
> to be the nucleus - see English 'doesn't' /dɜz.nt/, which has /n/ as its
> second syllable's nucleus.
>
> Typically - with a few exceptions - syllables are organised by what's
> called /sonority/, which is basically the perceptual salience or
> 'loudness' of sounds. The nucleus is the sonority peak, and sonority
> falls off towards the edges - indeed, in some theories, a syllable is
> explicitly defined as being the space between sonority low points. The
> sonority hierarchy is largely this, from most to least:
> - Vowels
> - Sonorant consonants (liquids and nasals)
> - Voiced fricatives
> - Voiceless fricatives
> - Stops
> Languages can vary on how far down the hierarchy a nucleus can be - some
> languages only allow vowels, English allows vowels and sonorants, and a
> couple Berber languages are famous for apparently allowing all the way
> down to stops. Within complex onsets and codas - again with a few
> exceptions - consonants are expected to become more sonorant closer to
> the nucleus. For example, the English word /trend/ exemplifies this -
> /t/ is less sonorous than /ɹ/, and /n/ is more sonorous than /d/. The
> biggest exceptions to this generalisation are /s z/ (and other coronal
> sibilants), which seem to be allowed outside lower-sonority consonants
> on both ends in quite a few languages, English being one - /strand/ is
> perfectly valid, even though the /s/ occurs outside the less-sonorous
> /t/. In some languages, word edges may allow for /extrasyllabic/
> consonants, which don't quite fit in a syllable - this allows for
> English words like 'act' with two stops in a row, which would be invalid
> inside a word without the /t/ becoming the onset of the next syllable.
>
> Sometimes the string of sounds provided by building a word from
> morphemes has sequences that can't be syllabified - for example, if you
> only allow CV and you get a word with two consonants in a row, you have
> a problem. This is where things like epenthesis come in - sounds can be
> added in phonologically to help make things work out right. You might
> find that a disallowed CC sequence is broken up by having a 'default'
> vowel like /a/ or /ə/ inserted between the two consonants, or that it's
> broken up by inserting a copy of a neighbouring vowel. Other repair
> strategies involve just deleting one of the consonants, or having them
> merge somehow (eg have /nt/ become /d/, with /n/'s voicing but /t/'s
> stop-ness).
>
> We often talk of syllables as having /weight/, which mostly means the
> amount of stuff put into the rime. Weight is typically quantified into
> units called /morae/, which are (basically) a measure of the time it
> takes to say a certain syllable. Typically, one V or CV (or CCV etc)
> syllable is one mora; (C)VV and (C)VC are two morae, and (C)VVC is
> three; though exactly how things are counted can vary by language, and
> many languages distinguish between one ('light') and more-than-one
> ('heavy') and don't really care about exactly how many. Codas with more
> than one consonant may or may not count for more morae than the simple
> presence of a coda would add.
>
> Weight is relevant in several ways. First, languages can have maximum
> syllable weights. For example, a language may allow (C)VV and (C)VC but
> not (C)VVC, even though it does "have phonemic vowel length" - you can't
> simply switch out a short vowel for a long vowel or diphthong, because
> long vowels and diphthongs are associated with more structural positions
> than a short vowel is. You may also find position-based weight
> restrictions - for example, the last syllable of any word may be
> prohibited from being heavy; or it may allow an extrasyllabic consonant,
> as in Arabic, which allows (C)VVC only word-finally and nowhere else.
> Second, weight has various prosodic consequences. In a language with
> phonemic tone, a heavy syllable - especially one with a complex nucleus
> rather than just a coda - provides more morae for tones to attach to,
> and contour tones may require or cause a vowel to be long to fit all the
> parts of the tone. In a language with phonemic stress, stress tends to
> correlate with weight, and the language might have rules about heavy
> syllables attracting stress (Latin's stress rule works this way), or
> stressed syllables acquiring weight (one analysis has Norwegian and
> Swedish doing this). Since stress (including secondary stress) tends to
> proceed on an alternating stressed-unstressed-stressed-etc pattern, the
> syllables between stresses (again, including secondary stress) may be
> obligatorily light - or heavy syllables may cause deviations from the
> alternating pattern (as seems to happen in English).
>
> Going further down the rabbit hole (and this is the part I suggest
> beginning conlangers really stop before), you can begin to explore
> restrictions on what consonants can occur where in a syllable. For
> example, codas may lose voicing distinctions, or onsets may restrict the
> combinations of certain sounds. Autosegmental phonology explains this
> through the concept of 'feature licensing', where phonemic features are
> assigned to the syllable as a whole, and codas may license additional
> features. My conlang Emihtazuu only licenses nasality as a coda feature,
> which means that codas can only be a nasal with no place specification
> (which it has to get from a following stop) or a default consonant /h/.
> This is used to explain why English allows /tr/ as an onset but not /tl/
> - the /l/ requires a laterality specification that apparently can't
> coöccur with /t/ (but can with /p k/).
>
> /Even/ further down the rabbit hole starts to get into things like the
> autosegmental concept of 'timing tier' / 'skeletal tier', and things
> like vowels attaching to consonant slots, or stranger things like
> consonant slots that are empty but still demonstrably there, and some
> yet stranger things. If you want to know more about those, just go read
> the book (John Goldsmith's /Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology/) -
> it's worth every cent you'll spend on it.
>
> I hope that's not overwhelmingly much information! Ignore as much of
> this as you feel you need to, and just come back to it as you gain more
> familiarity with linguistic concepts.
>
>
> On 2018/04/24 21:57, Space Unicorn J wrote:
> > This is simple, I know a little about this but I wanted to know if
> someone
> > could help me to understand Syllable Structure and tell me some tips and
> > that, I think it’s a very interesting topic.
> >
> > I would like to know how to use this and examples of natural languages
> and
> > your Conlangs!!!
> >
> > Thx.
>

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December 2005, Week 5
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December 2004, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 5
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January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
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December 2002, Week 1
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November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
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August 2002, Week 5
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August 2002, Week 1
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December 1999, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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