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CONLANG  April 2018, Week 4

CONLANG April 2018, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Syllable Structure

From:

Aidan Aannestad <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 26 Apr 2018 10:21:24 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (204 lines)

I know very little about syllable structure In The Wild, as it were. I 
speak Japanese (with a very simple syllable structure) and English (with 
an overwhelmingly complex syllable structure), and my conlangs mostly 
also have simple syllable structure. Still, I'll give a couple examples 
from that.

Japanese's syllable structure is (C)V(V)(C). The second consonant, 
however, must be one of two things: a nasal consonant that pulls its 
place of articulation from its environment, or an empty consonant that's 
realised as a copy of / extension of whatever follows it (and is invalid 
without having a consonant following it). Arguably, the second vowel 
must be one of /i u/ or a copy of the first, and all other vowel 
sequences are in different syllables, but that's up for discussion. I 
know of no native Japanese word or Chinese loanword with the full CVVC - 
native Japanese words are mostly (C)V(CV) (eg /asa/, /koto/, /haɕi/, 
/ma/) and Chinese words are mostly (C)V(C/V) or (C)V(CV) with a high 
vowel for the last V (eg /hoo, ran, ɕi//, taku, heki/). Only recent 
loanwords from English and other sources have CVVC - /guraundo/ 
'ground', /boin/ 'boing' (cf /boin/ 'vowel', a Chinese loan and two 
syllables /bo.iN/).

My conlang Emihtazuu has a somewhat similar situation, but with an 
explicit prohibition on CVVC sequences - either it's CVC or CVV, not 
both. Also, like Japanese, the only coda consonants allowed are a nasal 
and a non-nasal thing, but in Emihtazuu, the non-nasal is /h/ and more 
widely valid. You can clearly see the maximum syllable structure in 
certain morphological environments: /tɛɛnai/ 'can do' + /-hná/ 'PERF' 
becomes /tɛɛnahná /'has been able to do', because the /aih./ sequence it 
creates is invalid and must be simplified to /ah/. Similarly, /tɛ́ɛ̀/ 
'doesn't' + /-hná/ becomes /tɛ̀hná/ 'hasn't'. Occasionally, though, such 
superheavy CVVC syllables are allowed when a monosyllabic CVV root has a 
CCV affix added to it, creating the optional possibility of /tɛ́ɛ̀hná/. 
Nasal codas are more restricted in Emihtazuu than in Japanese - in 
Japanese they can appear anywhere, but in Emihtazuu they must precede a 
stop. /VndV/ is valid; /VnsV/ is not, nor is /n/ valid word-finally (or 
/h/, for that matter). Interestingly, /h/ in Emihtazuu is invalid as an 
onset.

(You can see here how even simple syllable structures can have 
interesting complications, though!)

English has such complex syllable structure that I won't really touch 
it. Melroch's maximal syllable in his last post isn't too much larger 
than a theoretical maximal English syllable, though. English has enough 
space for things in its clusters that the question of what can coöccur 
with what becomes extremely relevant, and that's a space I know very 
little about.


On 2018/04/25 21:59, Space Unicorn J wrote:
> About some examples on natural languages and other Conlangs, as you want.
> And other extra things you could recommend to me.
> Thx
>
>> I've talked about a lot of things! What specifically do you want an
>> example of? Or do you want me to go through a single case study
>> language, or some such thing?
>>
>>
>> On 2018/04/25 15:22, Space Unicorn J wrote:
>>> Do you have any examples?
>>>
>>> <[log in to unmask]>
>>>
>>>> Syllable structure is actually a fascinating and complex topic; one
>>>> which I'm sure I don't fully understand. (I mostly work with CV(V)
>>>> structures in my own languages!) I'll try and summarise a bit of what I
>>>> remember about it - and hopefully write something that's useful to
>>>> conlangers of all levels.
>>>>
>>>> Syllable structure is, in short, what is allowed in a syllable, and
>>>> where. It's typically schematised as a series of capital letters, where
>>>> C means 'a consonant', V means 'a vowel', and parentheses indicate
>>>> optionality. However, there's much, much more complexity than a simple
>>>> statement such as 'this language allows (C)(C)V(V)(C)' would imply. For
>>>> a brand new conlanger, that's about as far as you need to go, though -
>>>> knowing to schematise it and fit your words to these structures, and
>>>> further knowing that you mostly need a vowel or something acting like
>>>> one in every syllable, is quite enough for a simple conlang.
>>>>
>>>> You can go much farther than that, though.
>>>>
>>>> At its most basic, a syllable is divided into two parts - an /onset/ and
>>>> a /rime/. The onset is everything before the vowel; the rime is the
>>>> vowel and everything after it. The rime is further divisible into the
>>>> /nucleus/, which is the vowel or whatever's acting kind of like one, and
>>>> the /coda/, which is the consonants following the vowel. Every syllable
>>>> at minimum needs a nucleus, though it doesn't necessarily need a vowel
>>>> to be the nucleus - see English 'doesn't' /dɜz.nt/, which has /n/ as its
>>>> second syllable's nucleus.
>>>>
>>>> Typically - with a few exceptions - syllables are organised by what's
>>>> called /sonority/, which is basically the perceptual salience or
>>>> 'loudness' of sounds. The nucleus is the sonority peak, and sonority
>>>> falls off towards the edges - indeed, in some theories, a syllable is
>>>> explicitly defined as being the space between sonority low points. The
>>>> sonority hierarchy is largely this, from most to least:
>>>> - Vowels
>>>> - Sonorant consonants (liquids and nasals)
>>>> - Voiced fricatives
>>>> - Voiceless fricatives
>>>> - Stops
>>>> Languages can vary on how far down the hierarchy a nucleus can be - some
>>>> languages only allow vowels, English allows vowels and sonorants, and a
>>>> couple Berber languages are famous for apparently allowing all the way
>>>> down to stops. Within complex onsets and codas - again with a few
>>>> exceptions - consonants are expected to become more sonorant closer to
>>>> the nucleus. For example, the English word /trend/ exemplifies this -
>>>> /t/ is less sonorous than /ɹ/, and /n/ is more sonorous than /d/. The
>>>> biggest exceptions to this generalisation are /s z/ (and other coronal
>>>> sibilants), which seem to be allowed outside lower-sonority consonants
>>>> on both ends in quite a few languages, English being one - /strand/ is
>>>> perfectly valid, even though the /s/ occurs outside the less-sonorous
>>>> /t/. In some languages, word edges may allow for /extrasyllabic/
>>>> consonants, which don't quite fit in a syllable - this allows for
>>>> English words like 'act' with two stops in a row, which would be invalid
>>>> inside a word without the /t/ becoming the onset of the next syllable.
>>>>
>>>> Sometimes the string of sounds provided by building a word from
>>>> morphemes has sequences that can't be syllabified - for example, if you
>>>> only allow CV and you get a word with two consonants in a row, you have
>>>> a problem. This is where things like epenthesis come in - sounds can be
>>>> added in phonologically to help make things work out right. You might
>>>> find that a disallowed CC sequence is broken up by having a 'default'
>>>> vowel like /a/ or /ə/ inserted between the two consonants, or that it's
>>>> broken up by inserting a copy of a neighbouring vowel. Other repair
>>>> strategies involve just deleting one of the consonants, or having them
>>>> merge somehow (eg have /nt/ become /d/, with /n/'s voicing but /t/'s
>>>> stop-ness).
>>>>
>>>> We often talk of syllables as having /weight/, which mostly means the
>>>> amount of stuff put into the rime. Weight is typically quantified into
>>>> units called /morae/, which are (basically) a measure of the time it
>>>> takes to say a certain syllable. Typically, one V or CV (or CCV etc)
>>>> syllable is one mora; (C)VV and (C)VC are two morae, and (C)VVC is
>>>> three; though exactly how things are counted can vary by language, and
>>>> many languages distinguish between one ('light') and more-than-one
>>>> ('heavy') and don't really care about exactly how many. Codas with more
>>>> than one consonant may or may not count for more morae than the simple
>>>> presence of a coda would add.
>>>>
>>>> Weight is relevant in several ways. First, languages can have maximum
>>>> syllable weights. For example, a language may allow (C)VV and (C)VC but
>>>> not (C)VVC, even though it does "have phonemic vowel length" - you can't
>>>> simply switch out a short vowel for a long vowel or diphthong, because
>>>> long vowels and diphthongs are associated with more structural positions
>>>> than a short vowel is. You may also find position-based weight
>>>> restrictions - for example, the last syllable of any word may be
>>>> prohibited from being heavy; or it may allow an extrasyllabic consonant,
>>>> as in Arabic, which allows (C)VVC only word-finally and nowhere else.
>>>> Second, weight has various prosodic consequences. In a language with
>>>> phonemic tone, a heavy syllable - especially one with a complex nucleus
>>>> rather than just a coda - provides more morae for tones to attach to,
>>>> and contour tones may require or cause a vowel to be long to fit all the
>>>> parts of the tone. In a language with phonemic stress, stress tends to
>>>> correlate with weight, and the language might have rules about heavy
>>>> syllables attracting stress (Latin's stress rule works this way), or
>>>> stressed syllables acquiring weight (one analysis has Norwegian and
>>>> Swedish doing this). Since stress (including secondary stress) tends to
>>>> proceed on an alternating stressed-unstressed-stressed-etc pattern, the
>>>> syllables between stresses (again, including secondary stress) may be
>>>> obligatorily light - or heavy syllables may cause deviations from the
>>>> alternating pattern (as seems to happen in English).
>>>>
>>>> Going further down the rabbit hole (and this is the part I suggest
>>>> beginning conlangers really stop before), you can begin to explore
>>>> restrictions on what consonants can occur where in a syllable. For
>>>> example, codas may lose voicing distinctions, or onsets may restrict the
>>>> combinations of certain sounds. Autosegmental phonology explains this
>>>> through the concept of 'feature licensing', where phonemic features are
>>>> assigned to the syllable as a whole, and codas may license additional
>>>> features. My conlang Emihtazuu only licenses nasality as a coda feature,
>>>> which means that codas can only be a nasal with no place specification
>>>> (which it has to get from a following stop) or a default consonant /h/.
>>>> This is used to explain why English allows /tr/ as an onset but not /tl/
>>>> - the /l/ requires a laterality specification that apparently can't
>>>> coöccur with /t/ (but can with /p k/).
>>>>
>>>> /Even/ further down the rabbit hole starts to get into things like the
>>>> autosegmental concept of 'timing tier' / 'skeletal tier', and things
>>>> like vowels attaching to consonant slots, or stranger things like
>>>> consonant slots that are empty but still demonstrably there, and some
>>>> yet stranger things. If you want to know more about those, just go read
>>>> the book (John Goldsmith's /Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology/) -
>>>> it's worth every cent you'll spend on it.
>>>>
>>>> I hope that's not overwhelmingly much information! Ignore as much of
>>>> this as you feel you need to, and just come back to it as you gain more
>>>> familiarity with linguistic concepts.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> On 2018/04/24 21:57, Space Unicorn J wrote:
>>>>> This is simple, I know a little about this but I wanted to know if
>>>> someone
>>>>> could help me to understand Syllable Structure and tell me some tips
>> and
>>>>> that, I think it’s a very interesting topic.
>>>>>
>>>>> I would like to know how to use this and examples of natural languages
>>>> and
>>>>> your Conlangs!!!
>>>>>
>>>>> Thx.

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August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
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June 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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