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CONLANG  April 2018, Week 4

CONLANG April 2018, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Syllable Structure

From:

Aidan Aannestad <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 25 Apr 2018 10:20:29 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (137 lines)

Syllable structure is actually a fascinating and complex topic; one 
which I'm sure I don't fully understand. (I mostly work with CV(V) 
structures in my own languages!) I'll try and summarise a bit of what I 
remember about it - and hopefully write something that's useful to 
conlangers of all levels.

Syllable structure is, in short, what is allowed in a syllable, and 
where. It's typically schematised as a series of capital letters, where 
C means 'a consonant', V means 'a vowel', and parentheses indicate 
optionality. However, there's much, much more complexity than a simple 
statement such as 'this language allows (C)(C)V(V)(C)' would imply. For 
a brand new conlanger, that's about as far as you need to go, though - 
knowing to schematise it and fit your words to these structures, and 
further knowing that you mostly need a vowel or something acting like 
one in every syllable, is quite enough for a simple conlang.

You can go much farther than that, though.

At its most basic, a syllable is divided into two parts - an /onset/ and 
a /rime/. The onset is everything before the vowel; the rime is the 
vowel and everything after it. The rime is further divisible into the 
/nucleus/, which is the vowel or whatever's acting kind of like one, and 
the /coda/, which is the consonants following the vowel. Every syllable 
at minimum needs a nucleus, though it doesn't necessarily need a vowel 
to be the nucleus - see English 'doesn't' /dɜz.nt/, which has /n/ as its 
second syllable's nucleus.

Typically - with a few exceptions - syllables are organised by what's 
called /sonority/, which is basically the perceptual salience or 
'loudness' of sounds. The nucleus is the sonority peak, and sonority 
falls off towards the edges - indeed, in some theories, a syllable is 
explicitly defined as being the space between sonority low points. The 
sonority hierarchy is largely this, from most to least:
- Vowels
- Sonorant consonants (liquids and nasals)
- Voiced fricatives
- Voiceless fricatives
- Stops
Languages can vary on how far down the hierarchy a nucleus can be - some 
languages only allow vowels, English allows vowels and sonorants, and a 
couple Berber languages are famous for apparently allowing all the way 
down to stops. Within complex onsets and codas - again with a few 
exceptions - consonants are expected to become more sonorant closer to 
the nucleus. For example, the English word /trend/ exemplifies this - 
/t/ is less sonorous than /ɹ/, and /n/ is more sonorous than /d/. The 
biggest exceptions to this generalisation are /s z/ (and other coronal 
sibilants), which seem to be allowed outside lower-sonority consonants 
on both ends in quite a few languages, English being one - /strand/ is 
perfectly valid, even though the /s/ occurs outside the less-sonorous 
/t/. In some languages, word edges may allow for /extrasyllabic/ 
consonants, which don't quite fit in a syllable - this allows for 
English words like 'act' with two stops in a row, which would be invalid 
inside a word without the /t/ becoming the onset of the next syllable.

Sometimes the string of sounds provided by building a word from 
morphemes has sequences that can't be syllabified - for example, if you 
only allow CV and you get a word with two consonants in a row, you have 
a problem. This is where things like epenthesis come in - sounds can be 
added in phonologically to help make things work out right. You might 
find that a disallowed CC sequence is broken up by having a 'default' 
vowel like /a/ or /ə/ inserted between the two consonants, or that it's 
broken up by inserting a copy of a neighbouring vowel. Other repair 
strategies involve just deleting one of the consonants, or having them 
merge somehow (eg have /nt/ become /d/, with /n/'s voicing but /t/'s 
stop-ness).

We often talk of syllables as having /weight/, which mostly means the 
amount of stuff put into the rime. Weight is typically quantified into 
units called /morae/, which are (basically) a measure of the time it 
takes to say a certain syllable. Typically, one V or CV (or CCV etc) 
syllable is one mora; (C)VV and (C)VC are two morae, and (C)VVC is 
three; though exactly how things are counted can vary by language, and 
many languages distinguish between one ('light') and more-than-one 
('heavy') and don't really care about exactly how many. Codas with more 
than one consonant may or may not count for more morae than the simple 
presence of a coda would add.

Weight is relevant in several ways. First, languages can have maximum 
syllable weights. For example, a language may allow (C)VV and (C)VC but 
not (C)VVC, even though it does "have phonemic vowel length" - you can't 
simply switch out a short vowel for a long vowel or diphthong, because 
long vowels and diphthongs are associated with more structural positions 
than a short vowel is. You may also find position-based weight 
restrictions - for example, the last syllable of any word may be 
prohibited from being heavy; or it may allow an extrasyllabic consonant, 
as in Arabic, which allows (C)VVC only word-finally and nowhere else. 
Second, weight has various prosodic consequences. In a language with 
phonemic tone, a heavy syllable - especially one with a complex nucleus 
rather than just a coda - provides more morae for tones to attach to, 
and contour tones may require or cause a vowel to be long to fit all the 
parts of the tone. In a language with phonemic stress, stress tends to 
correlate with weight, and the language might have rules about heavy 
syllables attracting stress (Latin's stress rule works this way), or 
stressed syllables acquiring weight (one analysis has Norwegian and 
Swedish doing this). Since stress (including secondary stress) tends to 
proceed on an alternating stressed-unstressed-stressed-etc pattern, the 
syllables between stresses (again, including secondary stress) may be 
obligatorily light - or heavy syllables may cause deviations from the 
alternating pattern (as seems to happen in English).

Going further down the rabbit hole (and this is the part I suggest 
beginning conlangers really stop before), you can begin to explore 
restrictions on what consonants can occur where in a syllable. For 
example, codas may lose voicing distinctions, or onsets may restrict the 
combinations of certain sounds. Autosegmental phonology explains this 
through the concept of 'feature licensing', where phonemic features are 
assigned to the syllable as a whole, and codas may license additional 
features. My conlang Emihtazuu only licenses nasality as a coda feature, 
which means that codas can only be a nasal with no place specification 
(which it has to get from a following stop) or a default consonant /h/. 
This is used to explain why English allows /tr/ as an onset but not /tl/ 
- the /l/ requires a laterality specification that apparently can't 
coöccur with /t/ (but can with /p k/).

/Even/ further down the rabbit hole starts to get into things like the 
autosegmental concept of 'timing tier' / 'skeletal tier', and things 
like vowels attaching to consonant slots, or stranger things like 
consonant slots that are empty but still demonstrably there, and some 
yet stranger things. If you want to know more about those, just go read 
the book (John Goldsmith's /Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology/) - 
it's worth every cent you'll spend on it.

I hope that's not overwhelmingly much information! Ignore as much of 
this as you feel you need to, and just come back to it as you gain more 
familiarity with linguistic concepts.


On 2018/04/24 21:57, Space Unicorn J wrote:
> This is simple, I know a little about this but I wanted to know if someone
> could help me to understand Syllable Structure and tell me some tips and
> that, I think it’s a very interesting topic.
>
> I would like to know how to use this and examples of natural languages and
> your Conlangs!!!
>
> Thx.

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