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CONLANG  April 2019, Week 5

CONLANG April 2019, Week 5

Subject:

Re: Romanization of conlangs (was: Not using IPA for reconstructed languages (was: Proto-Sohlob-Isturjieb coming))

From:

"Mark J. Reed" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 29 Apr 2019 15:37:14 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

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>  Usefulness as a guide to pronunciation for linguistically uninformed
readers (eg of a novel)
>  Usefulness as a guide to pronunciation for linguistically informed
readers (eg other conlangers - or yourself!)

There is a third category that falls in between the above two - actors! If
your conlang is being used in a film or TV show, then you have
readers/speakers who are linguistically uninformed but who (hopefully) have
a knowledgeable teacher/coach (ideally the language's creator) and who are
presumably motivated to put in some effort to speak the language as
intended. This is why the standard written form of Klingon uses uppercase
to call out letters that shouldn't be pronounced the way a native English
speaker is likely to pronounce them in a foreign word: we write <I> instead
of <i> because it's [ɪ], not [i]. Similarly with <D> for [ɖ], <H> for [x],
<S> for [ʂ]. But this is of little help with <q> [q] and <Q> [qχ], which I
think are fairly misleading choices even though the lowercase one exactly
maps to the IPA. In any case, this scheme was originally meant to provide
reminders for actors who had been coached by Dr. Okrand personally; it
often fails in the general case of the linguistically naïve Anglophone
student, or the many cases where they simply didn't coach the actors very
well (if at all). So in the TNG episode "Matter of Honor", Klag pronounces
<yIHarQo'> "Don't believe him!" as [ji:'ha:ɹkwoʊ] instead of [jɪ'xarqχoʔ],
and throughout the Star Trek: TNG VHS game, the Kavok pronounces the word <b
Ij> [bɪdʒ] as [bi:ʒ], as if it were the start of the word "bijou".

David Peterson is in the same situation as Dr. Okrand, but in the case of
"Game of Thrones" is further constrained by the orthographic choices
already made by Mr. Martin when writing the original novels.

So many considerations!



On Mon, Apr 29, 2019 at 1:55 PM Aidan Aannestad <[log in to unmask]>
wrote:

> This has gotten me thinking about some things, especially in light of
> the fact that I just this morning read a chapter about orthography
> design for natlangs. It's really quite interesting how different the
> concerns are.
>
> For natlangs, almost the only concern is making sure that native
> speakers can see a word (in context) and recognise it as quickly as
> possible. Exactly how best to do this varies by language (especially in
> regards to tone, which is what I was reading about specifically), and
> the exact decisions of how to represent things may also have to do with
> nearby major languages / areal orthography conventions. (Speaker
> communities' preferences, though, trump all other considerations,
> including readability concerns.)
>
> None of this matters at all for conlangs, unless you're creating a
> conlang which uses Roman letters in its world-internal setting. For all
> other conlangs, you have a number of competing factors, which may have
> different weights under different circumstances:
>
> - Ease of typing
> - Usefulness as a guide to pronunciation for linguistically uninformed
> readers (eg of a novel)
> - Usefulness as a guide to pronunciation for linguistically informed
> readers (eg other conlangers - or yourself!)
> - Usefulness as a guide to the underlying mechanics of the language's
> phonology and morphophonemics
> - Usefulness as a representation of the language's own script (if it has
> one)
> - Aesthetic / 'flavour' properties of particular graphemes and
> combinations of graphemes
>
> Indeed, depending on how you intend to use your conlang, you may want
> more than one romanisation scheme, with each meant for different
> purposes; though it may be possible to do a good job of more than one at
> a time (particularly 1, 2 and 6 above probably go pretty well together).
>
> ]
>
> The unnamed polysynthetic language I'm working on is an interesting case
> study, maybe; and I've been thinking about it a bit recently, so I'm
> going to talk about it anyway :P It has six vowels (the canonical five
> and /ɨ/), a complex set of consonants including two voiceless liquids,
> tone with upstep and downstep processes, and a pile of morphophonemic
> things going on under the surface.
>
> - I can't imagine that a linguistically uninformed reader would too ever
> really get what's going on here, and I don't intend to use it in
> contexts where that matters, so I can set that concern aside.
>
> - Typing can be a pain. Tone diacritics aren't too bad to type with the
> keyboard I've got, but representing upstep and downstep is possibly
> tricky. Spelling /ɨ/ as <y> solves half of the problems on its own;
> writing /l̥ r̥/ as <lh rh> isn't too bad either. There's not a lot
> stopping me from using <th dh> for /θ ð/, if I want to.
>
> - Linguistically informed readers can probably guess at /most/ of the
> above, though <y> isn't too clear. I've been writing pretty much
> straight IPA, modulo tones, for posts here though, just to get around
> that kind of an issue.
>
> - There's no native script (yet), and I'm not super concerned about
> romanisation aesthetics.
>
> - Morphophonemics is where things get weird. There are not just piles of
> epenthetic vowels, but two different kinds; there's two different
> dissimilation processes; tones can do odd things in combination; and the
> topic marker exists (almost) exclusively as a process where the last
> consonant of a word turns into a voiceless continuant. I've got a
> variety of options, then:
>
> [mírɨ́tɨ́] 'said' < /mir[HL] /+ /-t
> /Options:
> /mírɨ́tɨ́ /(straight surface IPA)
> /mírýtý /(straight surface romanised)
> /mîryty /(surface segments with phonemic tone pattern; leaves tone
> realisation ambiguous due to differences between underlying /ɨ/ and
> epenthetic /ɨ/)
> /mîrt/ (straight underlying form, completely unindicative if you aren't
> familiar)
>
> [mírìl̥ɨ̀] 'want to say' < /mir[HL]/ + /-Vr̥
> /Options:
> /mírìl̥ɨ̀/ (straight surface IPA)
> /mírilhy/ (surface with easy romanisation, leaving low tone unmarked)
> /mîrilhy/ (surface segments, phonemic tone)
> /mîr?rh/ (underlying form; ? means I have no idea how to transcribe an
> underlying empty vowel slot)
>
> [θò] '1sg[TOP]' < /no[L]/ + /[-voice +cont]
> /Options:
> /θò/ (straight surface IPA)
> /tho/ (surface easy romanisation)
> /nho/ (morphophonemic-y spelling more clearly derived from the root;
> causes <th> to be questionable for underived /θ/ and <dh> to mean /θ/ as
> well)
> /ńo/ (morphophonemic-y spelling leaving the root even more clear and
> avoiding problems with <th dh>)
>
> TL;DR, romanisation is /really hard/ when you have complex
> morphophonemic stuff going on.
>
>
> On the subject of fictional historical reconstructions, that seems like
> an unusual subcase of the 'flavour' consideration, where the goal is not
> so much to give text a purely aesthetic flavour, and more about giving
> an extra degree of in-world realism to the reconstructions being discussed.
>
> On 2019/04/29 11:41, BPJ wrote:
> > The snag is of course that as conlangers we usually know what those
> > romanizations are supposed to stand for, so maybe our non-use of IPA is
> > rather part of the fictional setting where we pretend to be historical
> > linguists who are describing real-world (pre)-historical languages, or at
> > least languages which are real in the worlds where those languages are
> > real, perhaps leaning on a scholarly tradition which is also real in
> those
> > worlds. There may of course be different opinions on how legitimate that
> > behavior is.
> >
> > A more unquestionably legitimate concern is ease of typing, and perhaps
> > ease of doing grammar rather than phone*ics. As Logan Kearsley wrote in
> > another thread recently:
> >
> > LK >And I know that this is not true for some other people, but one thing
> > LK >that is fairly consistent about my process (and has actually stalled
> > LK >progress on many projects I would like to finish at some point) is
> > LK >that I cannot make very much progress without a good romanization
> > LK >system. If I cannot fluently type an unambiguous representation of
> the
> > LK >language, then I cannot work on it, because the details of
> > LK >transcribing it will get in the way of thinking about how it actually
> > LK >works. Usually that means that most of the phonetics / phonology do
> > LK >indeed have to be figured out fairly early on, to make it possible to
> > LK >devise a reasonable romanization system, but it's not necessarily the
> > LK >*first* thing.
> >
> > (It feels good to know that I'm not the only one! :-)
> >
> > It certainly is a factor that I have a key for ‹ä› and dead keys for some
> > of the most usual Latin alphabet diacritics readily available on my
> Swedish
> > Linux keyboard, so that I can readily type the "standard" Sohlob
> > romanization in any application, while I only would type IPA in Vim using
> > my own CXS-to-IPA keymap.
> > On my handheld devices where I use Multiling O Keyboard[^1] switching
> > to/from the IPA mode takes only one touch more than typing a letter with
> > diacritic, so that's hardly it.
> >
> > Some of us wouldn't want a romanization using any diacritical marks, or
> > rather not any requiring any special devices, and for some of them the
> main
> > problem with IPA may well be that it requires special devices, sensu
> lato.
> > In fact I can very much sympathize with that. After I decided that I
> wanted
> > to replace my old Latin-1 based romanization of Sohlob with something
> less
> > weird I literally hesitated for years about how to write the non-Latin
> > consonants. Not only was/am I not a big fan of tacking on a ‹+h› to any
> > consonant to indicate any of a number of modifications, but I already
> had a
> > number of ‹h› + resonant digraphs for voiceless resonants/voiceless
> lateral
> > fricative which I didn't want to give up. But how then distinguish
> between
> > e.g. [xl] and [kɬ]? I indeed considered using ‹hk hg hc hs› etc. but felt
> > that (1) Teonaht has prior art and (2) it would hardly be helpful. I
> ended
> > up with a "multigraded" romanization — or rather four different
> > romanizations for different purposes.[^2] The "narrow" version using tons
> > of diacritical marks is really mostly indulgence of the "imaginary
> > historical linguist" variety. The "broad" version is what I mostly use
> for
> > language description, except that I usually use ‹hl› etc. for the
> voiceless
> > resonants. This means that all the letters really needed to romanize
> Sohlob
> > languages
> >   can be typed on my Swedish Linux keyboard using only precomposed
> > characters. Incidentally the extra consonant letters needed to type
> > Classical Sohlob and Chidilib are the same as Lakhota uses, which is a
> Good
> > Thing because it means there are many fonts which support the set. Now
> I'm
> > even happy to use ‹ȟ› rather than ‹ǩ› for /x/ since I regard [h] as a
> > better potential mispronunciation than [k] or (horror!) [ks].
> >
> > The original reason to exist for the "simplified" version was that I
> > thought that that was what I was going to use for language names and
> proper
> > names in English (and Swedish) text and in narrative fiction, should I
> > write any again. In fact I'm using the "ASCII" version (potentially plus
> > the middle dot) for names in English text, even though _Hïlïb_ probably
> > would stand a better chance than _Hielieb_ of being pronounced close to
> > [hɨlɨb̥].  Such is the power of the notion that English doesn't use
> > diacritical marks — which actually isn't quite true anyway!
> >
> > My opinion on digraphs has actually loosened up considerably over the
> last
> > your or two, especially since I realized that if used in a consistent and
> > principled way letters and punctuation characters can in fact be
> > diacritics. I came to that realization when it hit me that that caron ~
> ‹h›
> > and umlaut ~ ‹e› are actually freely interchangeable in the current
> > romanization of Sohlob, except that ‹ȟ› is preferred to ‹ǩ› and ‹h› is
> > omitted after ‹j› to the extent that I use ‹ǰ› at all.
> > As you can see my "ASCII" version even uses ‹r› as a diacritic for
> > "retracted", and I've even used ‹td› for dental _t_ in a file name! In
> fact
> > I'm currently mulling on what other letters than ‹+h +y/+j +e +r/r+ h+›
> may
> > have an "obvious" diacritic use. Doubling may also be regarded as a
> > diacritic when used in a principled way.
> >
> >
> > [^1]: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=kl.ime.oh
> >
> > [^2]: http://melroch.se/sohlob/sohlob-romanization.pdf
> >
> > Den sön 28 apr. 2019 21:50Jörg Rhiemeier <[log in to unmask]> skrev:
> >
> >> Hallo conlangers!
> >>
> >> On 22/04/19 18:28, BPJ made the following digression in a longer post:
> >>
> >>> {begin digression}
> >>> Indeed one of my reasons for not using IPA is that I feel that using
> it,
> >>> especially between slashes or brackets is or may look like a stronger
> >>> commitment to phonemehood or a particular phonetic value than I want to
> >>> make at least at this point. E.g. using _ȟ_ skirts the question of
> which
> >>> Sohlob varieties, communities etc. have [x] or [χ] at any point in
> time,
> >>> space or the speech stream. (Also I happen to think that e.g. [pahad]
> is
> >> a
> >>> better mispronunciation of [paxad] than [paksad] or [pakad], not least
> >>> because that is how an articulatorically unskilled Chidilib or Linjieb
> >>> speaker would render it!)
> >>> {end digression}
> >> Right! IPA is a *phonetic alphabet*, it is made for discussing phonetic
> >> values. Reconstructed languages at most have *phonemes*. Using IPA
> >> creates the impression that one can nail down the sounds written that
> >> way to some more or less exact phonetic value, which usually is unknown
> >> and often unknowable in a reconstructed language. Also, IPA is a *big*
> >> chest of letters, and with most languages, you won't need more than a
> >> few of them, and it is often more convenient to use some other alphabet
> >> which does not have so many superfluous letters.
> >>
> >> This is, for instance, part of the reason why Indo-Europeanists don't
> >> transcribe PIE in IPA. (The bigger reason of course is that there is a
> >> long-standing tradition of transcribing the PIE phonemes as they are
> >> done, and nobody feels like changing it more than necessary to
> >> accommodate newer insights.) Consider the "laryngeals". Just what are
> >> they? If you transcribe them as, say, *h, *χ, *χʷ, you have cast a vote
> >> in the endless debate about their phonetic values even if that wasn't
> >> your intention, and people who maintain a different position will attack
> >> you. So everybody just uses *h1, *h2, *h3, which says just what is known
> >> about them, namely "three vaguely h-like sounds which differ from each
> >> other in some unknown way". The same thing holds, of course, for other
> >> language families such as Uralic, Semitic, Sino-Tibetan or Austronesian.
> >>
> >> In a similar way, ancient written languages are not transcribed in IPA,
> >> either; rather, linguists render the *graphemes* of the language - which
> >> is the *only* thing we know for sure about them! - in a convenient
> >> alphabet, and IPA usually is a bad choice. That's, for example, why you
> >> don't see vowel letters in transcriptions of languages like Egyptian or
> >> Phoenician - the ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians did not write the
> >> vowels, either, so we can't be sure about them.
>
>
> ---
> このEメールはアバスト アンチウイルスによりウイルススキャンされています。
> https://www.avast.com/antivirus
>


-- 
Mark J. Reed <[log in to unmask]>

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July 2012, Week 2
July 2012, Week 1
June 2012, Week 5
June 2012, Week 4
June 2012, Week 3
June 2012, Week 2
June 2012, Week 1
May 2012, Week 5
May 2012, Week 4
May 2012, Week 3
May 2012, Week 2
May 2012, Week 1
April 2012, Week 5
April 2012, Week 4
April 2012, Week 3
April 2012, Week 2
April 2012, Week 1
March 2012, Week 5
March 2012, Week 4
March 2012, Week 3
March 2012, Week 2
March 2012, Week 1
February 2012, Week 5
February 2012, Week 4
February 2012, Week 3
February 2012, Week 2
February 2012, Week 1
January 2012, Week 5
January 2012, Week 4
January 2012, Week 3
January 2012, Week 2
January 2012, Week 1
December 2011, Week 5
December 2011, Week 4
December 2011, Week 3
December 2011, Week 2
December 2011, Week 1
November 2011, Week 5
November 2011, Week 4
November 2011, Week 3
November 2011, Week 2
November 2011, Week 1
October 2011, Week 5
October 2011, Week 4
October 2011, Week 3
October 2011, Week 2
October 2011, Week 1
September 2011, Week 5
September 2011, Week 4
September 2011, Week 3
September 2011, Week 2
September 2011, Week 1
August 2011, Week 5
August 2011, Week 4
August 2011, Week 3
August 2011, Week 2
August 2011, Week 1
July 2011, Week 5
July 2011, Week 4
July 2011, Week 3
July 2011, Week 2
July 2011, Week 1
June 2011, Week 5
June 2011, Week 4
June 2011, Week 3
June 2011, Week 2
June 2011, Week 1
May 2011, Week 5
May 2011, Week 4
May 2011, Week 3
May 2011, Week 2
May 2011, Week 1
April 2011, Week 5
April 2011, Week 4
April 2011, Week 3
April 2011, Week 2
April 2011, Week 1
March 2011, Week 5
March 2011, Week 4
March 2011, Week 3
March 2011, Week 2
March 2011, Week 1
February 2011, Week 4
February 2011, Week 3
February 2011, Week 2
February 2011, Week 1
January 2011, Week 5
January 2011, Week 4
January 2011, Week 3
January 2011, Week 2
January 2011, Week 1
December 2010, Week 5
December 2010, Week 4
December 2010, Week 3
December 2010, Week 2
December 2010, Week 1
November 2010, Week 5
November 2010, Week 4
November 2010, Week 3
November 2010, Week 2
November 2010, Week 1
October 2010, Week 5
October 2010, Week 4
October 2010, Week 3
October 2010, Week 2
October 2010, Week 1
September 2010, Week 5
September 2010, Week 4
September 2010, Week 3
September 2010, Week 2
September 2010, Week 1
August 2010, Week 5
August 2010, Week 4
August 2010, Week 3
August 2010, Week 2
August 2010, Week 1
July 2010, Week 5
July 2010, Week 4
July 2010, Week 3
July 2010, Week 2
July 2010, Week 1
June 2010, Week 5
June 2010, Week 4
June 2010, Week 3
June 2010, Week 2
June 2010, Week 1
May 2010, Week 5
May 2010, Week 4
May 2010, Week 3
May 2010, Week 2
May 2010, Week 1
April 2010, Week 5
April 2010, Week 4
April 2010, Week 3
April 2010, Week 2
April 2010, Week 1
March 2010, Week 5
March 2010, Week 4
March 2010, Week 3
March 2010, Week 2
March 2010, Week 1
February 2010, Week 4
February 2010, Week 3
February 2010, Week 2
February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
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July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
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May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
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November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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