>> On Fri, 10 Feb 1995 15:23:01 CST,
>> Terry Langendoen <[log in to unmask]> said:
Terry> Any advice for the following query (which was posted on the LINGUIST
Terry> discussion list)? -Terry Langendoen
>> From: Jan Tent ([log in to unmask])
Jan> How does one cite electronic versions of literary and other texts
Jan> brought down from the net/web? There are no page or paragraph numbers
Jan> and even the provenance of the text is not always clear (e.g. from what
Jan> print edition was it keyed-in or scanned?).
One good way to cite a document on the Internet involves the use
of URLs (Uniform Resource Locators). A URL is a shorthand way to show
where and how to get a given piece of information. Most URLs look
something like this:
"method" describes the manner in which the information is being made
available. "hostname" holds the human-readable network address of the
computer storing the information, and "path" shows the path to the
information on the host machine.
The only way I can think of to handle provenance issues would be to
include things like the print edition in the path. I can't think of
any way to consistently handle page and chapter numbers without the use
of a markup standard like SGML in the text itself.
Here's a short summary of the most common URLs with examples:
1. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
This is the method used by the World-Wide Web, arguably the largest
hypertext collection in existence. Web browsers like Mosaic make
extensive use of this URL. Here's an example:
This means "connect to the HTTP server on Internet host
www.willamette.edu and retrieve the file 'webdev/pricipia'."
For more information about HTTP, see the Internet newsgroup
2. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A great deal of Internet information is accessible via FTP, which is
a very simple way to download a file from one computer to another.
Here's an example:
This means "connect to the FTP server on Internet host
ftp.arnes.si, go to the magazines directory, and retrieve the
3. WAIS (Wide-Area Information Server)
WAIS represents a set of programs and protocols used to do full-text
searches through information residing on a given host. Here's an
This means "connect to the WAIS informatica database on host
kanin.arnes.si to look for something". For more information about
WAIS, see the Internet newsgroup comp.infosystems.wais.
Gopher is a set of programs and protocols used to display information
resources in the form of hierarchical menus. Here's an example:
This means "connect to the Gopher server on host wiretap.spies.com,
select the Library item at the main menu, select the Articles item at
the Library menu, and then select the Cryptography item." I'm not
sure what the "11" stands for; it may be to identify the type of
information you'll get back, like text or GIF, etc.
For more information about Gopher, see the Internet newsgroup
Hope this helps.
Karl Vogel [log in to unmask]
Control Data Systems, Inc. ASC/YCOA, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433