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AUXLANG  April 1997, Week 5

AUXLANG April 1997, Week 5

Subject:

Universal Children

From:

Mark Vines <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Mon, 28 Apr 1997 10:04:57 -0600

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (143 lines)

It's been suggested by Pasi Paernaenen
<[log in to unmask]> that a global
auxlang should conform as closely as possible to
universal norms of human grammar, & also to the
norms of child language acquisition & use.

I have some comments on these suggestions.

On universal grammar:

Theories on the universal norms of human grammar
are numerous.  Many theories have not yet been
developed to the point of making unique, testable
predictions.  Among those which do make predictions,
none have been adequately tested against natlang
data.  (For most human languages, the requisite data
have not yet been collected or, if collected, have
not yet been peer-reviewed or, if reviewed, have not
yet been published or, if published, have not yet
been thoroughly correlated with relevant data from
other publications.)

Auxlang design might benefit from a study of these
theories.  But no one knows which of them, if any,
is correct.  For any given theory, there's a risk
that it will eventually be disconfirmed by the data.

On children & language:

Language learning is amazingly easy for children in
the right age range.  This may be a good reason _not_
to model an auxlang on the acquisition & use of
language by children:  children can too easily
overcome difficulties which would frustrate or defeat
many adults.

I've read several studies on children & language.
Some of their findings are controversial.  Here's a
selection, possibly obsolete or unreliable, which
might have implications for auxlang design:

1

Children instinctively expect each morpheme to be
one syllable in length, with an early preference for
the CV shape.  At least two conlang designs (Monling
& guaspi) have employed the 1 morpheme = 1 syllable
equation; neither language has yet succeeded in
attracting a user population.

2

Children instinctively assume that each word is a
unique name for a distinct whole object.  This is
called the Whole Object Assumption.  Children do not
drop this assumption until they encounter contrary
evidence, but that often comes early in the process
of L1 acquisition.

3

Once they've dropped the Whole Object Assumption,
children instinctively expect "classifiers" or
"pivot particles" to distinguish between various
noun classes.  They expect one pivot to mark all
nouns that refer to countable whole objects, another
to mark all mass nouns, another to mark all nouns
that refer to countable parts of objects, ktp.  When
children learn an L1 which does not provide these
pivot words, they systematically mistake other words
for the pivots they expect.  Perhaps this means that
the ideal auxlang should include pivot particles for
classifying nouns.

Situation:
  A mother shows her son a cup of juice during L1
  acquisition.

Pivot particles:
  W = countable whole object
  P = countable part of object
  M = mass noun

Example 1.  Mother:
  "This is W cup."
  "Do you want W cup?"

  The W particle tells the child that the noun
  "cup" refers to a whole object.

Example 2.  Mother:
  "This is P handle."
  "Can you hold W cup by P handle?"

  The P particle tells the child that the noun
  "handle" refers to a part of an object.

Example 3.  Mother:
  "This is M juice."
  "Would you like M juice?"

  The M particle tells the child that the noun
  "juice" refers to a mass, not a countable object.

Note that, in all three examples, the nonverbal cues
provided by the mother are almost identical:  she
shows her son a cup of juice.  Pivot particles help
the child to "achieve reference" for each of the
nouns that his mother uses, despite the fact that
her nonverbal cues may be ambiguous.

4

Apparently no one knows whether children expect
pivot particles for words other than nouns.  If so,
I'd guess the copula might be regarded as a pivot
particle of this type.  Perhaps this means that
the ideal auxlang should include pivot particles
for classifying verbs, predicate adjectives, ktp.

5

When a sentence employs a certain word, & another
sentence is identical except for the use of an
exact synonym in the same spot, children do not
assume that the two sentences have the same truth
value.  In fact, for sentence pairs of this type,
children frequently assert opposing truth values.

Maybe, even after they've dropped the Whole Object
Assumption, children instinctively assume that words
have unique meanings & are not interchangeable.
Does this mean that the ideal auxlang should be
designed so that there are no true synonyms in its
lexicon?  You tell me.

Again, some of these findings may be obsolete or
unreliable.  If you have better information, I hope
you'll enlighten us here on the list.

All the best,
- Mark Vines

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