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AUXLANG  September 1997, Week 5

AUXLANG September 1997, Week 5

Subject:

Re: simple natlangs (estis: Re: Classical Yiklamu)

From:

"Mark P. Line" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 29 Sep 1997 13:49:27 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (299 lines)

Ken Caviness wrote:
>
> Respondante al plifrua mesag^o mia,
> je 05:03 AM 9/29/97 -0700, Mark P. Line skribis:
>
> >But my knowledge of conlang IAL candidates is hardly at
> >issue here.
>
> No, only to the extent that after recovering from my
> surprise I wondered if you judged yourself to have a
> sufficient basis for comparison of "simple" natlangs and
> conlangs.

In other words, you're exploring the possibilities of an ad hominem
argument. Do you really think that's a good idea?


> As I mentioned, I've heard so many opinions from people who
> hadn't even looked at the question,

It might be wise of you not to make that kind of assumption in my case,
unless you have reason to believe that I am in the habit of stating
unconsidered opinions.


> But it interests me a great deal that you have experience
> with Esperanto, yet feel that certain natlangs are
> comparably uncomplicated, or even *less* complicated.

I've said that for years, and I'm not alone. Maybe you just never take
anybody with a differing opinion seriously until they rub your nose in
it.


> >James had stated that natlangs can be discounted
> >categorically as possible IAL's, because they're too
> >complicated. Although he has backed off from his
> >hyperbolic formulation, his (and presumably your) basic
> >assumption remains unshaken.
>
> Well, previously I had no valid evidence to question the
> assumption, although I recognize that lack of evidence does
> not constitute proof!

A dozen natlangs, most of which are related, does not constitute
evidence that can be generalized to all natlangs everywhere. Hypotheses
about *all* natlangs should be informed either by empirical universals
(or at least trends) or by other theoretical (cognitive,
neuropsychological, semiotic, ...) considerations.


> Based on your information I certainly no longer think that
> it necessarily is true that a natlang must be complicated
> and exception-rich.  However, that is how I would describe
> English, French, German, Spanish, Greek, Russian,
> Hungarian, Tamil, Sanskrit, and incidentally, Interlingua,
> which retains many complexities of its Romance source
> languages.

As I said, [English, French, German, Spanish, Greek, Russian, Sanskrit]
is a really _lousy_ representative sample of the world's natlangs. The
sample is not improved by throwing in a couple of agglutinating
languages like Hungarian and Tamil.


> Just to be sure I understand:  in comparison to Malay, Tok
> Pisin, or Quechua, do you find any of the ethnic languages
> listed above to be of comparable simplicity?

I have only cursory knowledge of Tamil, so I wouldn't want to hazard a
statement without at least reading a good reference grammar (I've found
two so far -- one in Hindi and one in Tamil; unfortunately, I can read
neither).

In the case of the other languages you mention, I agree that they are
more complicated (by the definition I introduced) than Malay, Quechua
and Tok Pisin. I didn't name those three languages in this context
because I think they're cool; I named them in this context because I
think they're excellent examples of how straightforward a natlang can
be.


> That would indeed follow.  There are, of course, other
> reasons some people might prefer a conIAL over a natIAL,
> but let's not open that can of worms yet!

Yes, that's why I was carefully pointing out that it is the issue of
complicatedness, brought up by James again, that we were discussing here
-- not the whole conlang vs. natlang IAL question. "Conlangs are
superior, therefore your claims about natlangs are wrong." ;)


> >I hope that I have never said anything as stupid as "Malay
> >is just as easy to learn as Esperanto".
>
> I'm sure you didn't say it that baldly.  Please view my
> comments as a sort of conceptual short-hand.

Sorry, you'll have to say what you mean if you want to discuss these
things with me (your choice, as always). "A sort of conceptual
short-hand" is the stuff that flame-wars (or at best terminal
misunderstanding) are made of.

I don't think I've ever made any generalizations whatsoever about the
ease-of-learning of any languages. Mostly, I've tried to relativize
people's underspecified claims of the form "X is easier to learn than Y"
by showing that this kind of claim is very relative to the person
learning these languages -- their L1/L2 backgrounds and other
demographic traits.

If there's anything along these lines that I've said that you think I
shouldn't have (or that you think don't hold water), then you should
point me to my exact words, not "a sort of conceptual shorthand".

Ken Caviness sucks eggs.

[Please note that "sucks eggs" is a conceptual shorthand for "is not a
native speaker of Kunimaipa".]

:)


> >I guess we could define "complicated" in terms of the
> >amount of information necessary to describe the grammar of
> >a language, using a descriptive mechanism (formal,
> >semi-formal or prose) that allows comparison across
> >typologically divergent languages.
>
> Yes, this is the kind of thing I was thinking about.  I
> feel that there *should* be some way to speak of absolute
> complexity of languages, unrelated to any student's
> previously learned languages.  Whether the universe fits my
> world-view is, of course, another issue.

Back when Noah was still caulking the ark and I was actually being paid
to do research in linguistics, I had a working complexity metric for
language which allowed very detailed comparisons -- detailed in both the
sense of "Esperanto overall: 11,673 points; Malay overall: 8,257 points"
as well  as the sense of "Malay phonotactics: 17; Esperanto
phonotactics: 13" [all these numbers are fictitious...]. The method
could be carried up through semantics as far as you cared to take it,
meaning that you could compare apples with apples if you were able to
come up with a semantic representation that could be common to both
languages.

The method used Stratificational Grammar as its formalism, which
consists of a lot of relational nodes with links running between them.
Constructing the grammars for the language fragments to be compared was
always the hard part -- the complexity metric itself was defined simply
as the total number of nodes and links in the strat grammar. Since strat
divides up the grammar into several strata (duh), it was possible to
differentiate the complexity metric quite nicely into "complexity of
phonetic realization (allophony)", "phonotactic complexity", ...,
"complexity of morphosyntactic realization (e.g. suppletion)",
"morphosyntactic complexity", ... etc.


Alternatively, it's possible that I've never, ever thought about the
issue of linguistic complexity and was stating my opinions this whole
time without even having looked at the question.


> >In that case, I would have to say
> >that I find Malay to be less complicated than Esperanto.
>
> Wow.
>
> Well, this is precisely the type of complexity measure I
> had in mind, although I could not by any means rigourously
> define it.

See above, re: strat complexity.


> All I can say is, you surprise me!

Then I can die a happy man. ;)


> And I can't help wondering if perhaps we are still not
> quite on the same wavelength.

But your wondering just keeps you from spending some time reading a
Malay reference grammar, doesn't it? ;)


> You mentioned:
>
> >My knowledge of Esperanto is similar to that of the
> >natlangs I mentioned (and of some natlangs I didn't
> >mention, of course). I once had the opportunity to study
> >in detail the results of a corpus-based grammar project at
> >the University of Saarbruecken, in which things like
> >preposition usage and verb valencies were exposed
> >descriptively.
>
> I realize that there are areas in Esperanto where current
> usage selects one of many allowed possibilities, and it has
> occurred to me more than once that it would be harder to
> define Esperanto as it is used than to define the range of
> allowable statements within Esperanto.

I'm quite happy to stick to "allowable statements". Empirically, that
would have to be the first step in any event. Usage selections would be
controlled by pragmatic factors, and you can only get a handle on _them_
if you already know what it is that's being selected from.


> So I wonder if your "more complex than Malay description"
> of Esperanto takes into account idiosyncrasies of actual
> usage whose presence or absence is immaterial to the core
> of the language?

Not idiosyncrasies of usage. Only those features which are frequent
enough that they fail to qualify as possible performance "errors". And
anyway, the same criteria are applied to all languages, not just
Esperanto. (The fact that it is a conlang has no bearing on the
analysis.)


> Based on my experience with the language I'd have to
> say that I have a very difficult time imagining a language
> which could be more succinctly described.

The explicitness of Esperanto morphosyntax calls for equal explicitness
of its lexical coding (stem classes). The former is easy to come by, the
latter less so (AFAIK).


> >> But could we agree that a language with separate
> >> "formal" and "informal" vocabularies would take longer
> >> to learn (as an L2) than a language having one
> >> vocabulary with an extra "honorific" word to be placed
> >> in a formal sentence, or perhaps an "unhonorific" for
> >> informal sentences?
> >
> >I suppose you could approach the question empirically by
> >creating a minimally-differenced conlang to compare with a
> >natlang that does its honorifics in a particular way. I
> >suspect that you would find that your results were
> >significantly dependent on the learner's L1 and L2
> >background. The same would be true if you created a
> >minimally-differenced conlang, to be compared with
> >English, in which animacy is marked by a prenominal
> >particle.
> >
> >In other words: No, we can't agree that a language with
> >lexically coded honorifics would take people of every
> >conceivable L1/L2 background longer to learn than a
> >language with analytically coded honorifics.
>
> I may be missing something obvious here, because it seems
> to me that whether or not the language grammatically
> resembles previous learned languages, a reduction in memory
> load of vocabulary to be learned (which I'm assuming is
> unfamiliar in both cases) would result in a gain of
> (relative) ease in learning.

Not necessarily. A speaker who is not accustomed to coding certain
features (e.g. honorifics) analytically might not even have very good
intuitions (i.e. objectified knowledge) about those features. For such a
speaker, I would predict that a language would be easier to learn if its
lexicon is carved up the way it is in this speaker's L1.

Do you believe English would become easier to learn FOR EVERY
CONCEIVABLE SPEAKER if causative/non-causative verb pairs ("the door
opened"/"he opened the door"; "the man died"/"he killed the man") were
supplanted by a single verb stem marked analytically for causative? If
you do, I disagree -- and only empirical results would be able to
resolve the issue; we merely have conflicting hypotheses, neither of
which have ever been tested in a ceteris paribus situation.


> Agreed, with the understanding that (1) even equally
> productive patterns could be more or less difficult to
> describe, and (2) I'm unsure of the extent to which a
> pattern's ease of description corelates directly with
> the mind's ease of assimilation of the pattern.

Both of those issues are addressed by the strat complexity metric I
mentioned above:

1. A "pattern" would be some fragment of the strat network, and its
complexity is counted in terms of the number of nodes and links it
contains. This then becomes a non-issue.

2. A good strat grammar will have captured and removed any redundancies,
so you'll always be sure there's no more parsimonious description that
fits the same data -- that's the best you can do in describing the
inherent nature of a single language. Remember, we're talking about
INHERENT COMPLEXITY of the language, not EASE OF LEARNING. The argument
that inherent complexity causes difficulty of learning has yet to be
fought (if at all).


-- Mark

(Mark P. Line  --  Bellevue, Washington  --  <[log in to unmask]>)

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March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
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May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
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November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
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October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
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August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 5
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
June 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
March 1997, Week 4
March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1

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