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AUXLANG  December 1997, Week 5

AUXLANG December 1997, Week 5

Subject:

Re: Le legiones e auxiliaris (fwd)

From:

STAN MULAIK <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 31 Dec 1997 10:49:32 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (120 lines)

>  Actually, this (admittedly dramatic) description of Interlingua
>  is not my invention.  I actually heard I-a described this way by
>  two of the participants at the AGM of the IL(Ido)SGB earlier this
>  year.  But after that, the more I saw of Interlingua, the more
>  I could not help thinking how apt it is.  Of course, I will grant you
>  that some, probably quite high, percentage of the I-a vocabulary is
>  common to upwards of 3 or 4 of the West European languages.  What
>  the Interlingua people don't seem to have grasped yet is that it
>  is not possible to frame an entire language, or realistically more
>  than about 60% of one, on words common to this many languages.
>  And where such common roots are not possible, Interlingua *does*
>  seem to have a propensity to take Italian words.  Often the S P
>  forms are not far off, but the F E D etc. and especially R are
>  miles away.  So add that to the 50-60% of roots common to I +
>  n>=1 others, and you get an enormous proportion of Interlingua
>  being common to Italian.

What concerns me about this view of Interlingua is that it reflects an
ignorance of the methodology behind its formulation. Interlingua was not
designed to be most like Italian--in fact, as I've already indicated,
Italian is the most difficult of the Romance languages for me to read,
despite the fact that Interlingua I use has many Italian-like particles.
But Italian slurs so many of the original protoromance words that they
come across unrecognizable to me.  English with its retention of numerous
Neolatin words preserves many of the prototypic forms on which Interlingua
is based.  But let us once again review what the methodology was behind
Interlingua's establishment of its vocabulary, which is the basis for
the current expansion of the vocabulary as others develop expanded dictionaries.
It will become clear why the naive observation that "some, probably quite
high, percentage of the I-a vocabulary is common to upwards of 3 or 4 of
the West European Languages" is correct but not surprizing. It was designed
to work out that way.

First, why was the Angloromance group of languages chosen as the basis for
establishing the international vocabulary?

The Angloromance group of languages, with German and Russian as additions,
were chosen to be the base for discovering international words (words of
similar form found in more than one language) because these languages were
much more homogeneous, say, than the Germanic languages; they were based on
a common ancestor, or derived from that common ancestor; they shared many
words of more recent origin, often borrowed from one another; they were a
major center for the absorption of words from other languages outside the
group, so that if words from other languages had become "international",
they would likely turn up in this group as well; this group was also a
major center for the radiation of words to other languages outside the
group, e.g. the germanic languages have absorbed thousands of words from
Latin and romance, many in their romanic forms, but others in "calque
translations" of the romanic forms, and thus the Angloromance languages
are a major source of international words in languages outside this group.
In fact the Angloromance languages (including Latin in the background)
have had a far greater impact on languages outside this group than have
languages outside this group on the Angloromance languages.  Finally, the
choice of focus on this group of languages was made for practical reasons.
There are millions of speakers of these languages in both hemispheres.
Many speak these languages as a second language. The speakers of these
languages are, in their activities, most involved in international exchange,
needing an international means of communication. And then there is the
practical matter of simplifying the task of searching for International
words in all of the world's languages. It was decided that limiting the
search to this group of languages would produce results that differ little
from a much wider survey of languages.

The languages chosen to survey were English, French, Italian, Spanish/Port-
uguese (treated as a single unit), with German and Russian as possible
alternatives.

A word was eligible to enter the "international vocabulary" "when its
presence is attested--in corresponding forms and with corresponding meanings--
in at least three of the language units..."

[So it is not surprizing that Interlingua words are found in 3 or 4 of the
European languages].

Next, what form would the international word be standardized upon?  It was
essential to provide an objective method of achieving this result. Here again
there is the advantage of having a relatively homogeneous group of languages
sharing a common ancestor or borrowing from a common ancestor of the others.

The standardized form of the international word could not be anything
characteristic of a given language, but had to be international. That meant
that everything that is a characteristic feature of but one of the languages
had to be eliminated from the standardized form.  "On the other hand," says
the introduction to the Interlingua-English Dictionary, "the international
form of a word must be such that every idiosyncratic feature of its
representation in one particular language must be explicable as a monolingual
transformation of it.  It must be the prototype of which all the contributing
forms are specialized variations."  "The prototype... may be defined as the
nearest common documented or hypothetical ancestor from which all the
contributing variants can be developed in accordance with the individual
laws and motives operating in the various languages considered."

As I tried to indicate previously, IALA had as its major initial project,
this "standardization" project.  How to find the international words in
an objective manner, and then how to standardize their form in an objective
manner.  Can any other "constructed" auxiliary language claim to have
achieved the same degree of objectivity in methodology?

But once this standardized international vocabulary had been established,
how to manipulate it grammatically in a language was a second consideration.

I need to mention that after the perspicuous view of this standardized
international vocabulary had been achieved, it was seen that there is a
"prototype" in the schema of affixes by which words in word-families are
derived from root words.  This prototype was systematized slightly in
a final standardization of the forms in the IED.  Throughout the word
families of the IED, one sees the same standard affixes. A list of some
125 affixes is described briefly in the IED and in greater detail in
the Interlingua Grammar of Gode and Blair, where they are discussed for use
in new-word formation.

Interlingua is closer to protoromance than it is to any specific modern
Romance language.  Because much Neolatin has entered the modern languages,
it also contains the more prototypic Neolatin forms, standardized on the
basis of the standard affix system.  It is only superficial comparisons
that leads one to conclude that Interlingua is mostly Italian or Spanish,
or English or French.

Stan Mulaik

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March 2001, Week 1
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January 2001, Week 5
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January 2001, Week 1
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December 2000, Week 3
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November 2000, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 5
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