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AUXLANG  February 1998, Week 4

AUXLANG February 1998, Week 4

Subject:

Greenberg "Some Universals of Grammar"(1963)

From:

Robin Gaskell <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 25 Feb 1998 18:45:46 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (172 lines)

Hello Auxlangers,
        As promised, here are the Universals from the Dobbs Ferry, New York,
Conference of 1961. ["Universals of Language" (c) 1963,
M.I.T., Lib. of Congress Cat. Card No.: 62-22020]
 
????How do these relate to conlangs and auxlangs?  Maybe you would like to
check out your favourite auxlang against this list, to see that it is not
contrary to the list, i.e. has no features outside Greenberg's findings.!!!!
 
        Joseph H. Greenberg based his provisional list on thirty natlangs, which
he found to vary significantly on three main paramaters.
  a. Whether there were prepositions (Pr) or postpositions (Po).
  b. Relative order of subject, verb and object in declarative
sentences with nominal subject and object:-
        [Note: O-S order was absent or extremely rare.]
      I. VSO
     II. SVO
    III. SOV
        [Types I and III he considered to be polarised situations.]
  c. Dominant order with adjectives preceding nouns (A) or with
  nouns preceding adjectives (N).
 
        Compiling the distribution of these parameters into a compact table
Greenberg showed the distribution of his thirty natlangs, and distinct
non-associations appeared immediately:-
 
 Table 1. I  II  III
  Po-A    -   1   6
  Po-N    -   2   5
  Pr-A    -   4   -  [ e.g. English with SVO, prep, & adj first.]
  Pr-N    6   6   -
 
        [Greenberg considered Po-A and Pr-N as the 'extreme' types]
 
        Appendix III - Universals Restated
 
1. In declarative sentences with nominal subject and object, the
dominant order is almost always one in which the subject precedes   the
object.
2. In languages with prepositions, the genetive almost always
follows the governing noun, while in languages with post         positions
it almost always precedes.
3. Languages with dominant VSO order are always prepositional.
4. With overwhelmingly greater than chance frequency, languages      with
normal SOV order are postpositional.
5. If a language has dominant SOV order and the genetive follows     the
governing noun, thenthe adjective likewise follows the noun.
6. All languages with dominant VSO order have SVO as an alternative   or as
the only alternative basic order.
7. If in a language with domonant SOV order there is no alternative   basic
order, or only OSV as the alternative, then all adverbial    modifiers of
the verb likewise precede the verb. (This is the
  "rigid" subtype of III.)
8. When a yes-no question is differentiated from the corresponding
  assertion by an intonational pattern, the distinctive
intonational feature of each of these patterns is reckoned from    the end
of the sentencerather than the beginning.
9. With more than chance frequency, when question particles or
affixes are specified in positionby reference to the sentence as
  a whole, if initial, such elements are found in prepositional
languages and, if final, in postpositional.
10. Question particles or affixes, specified in position by
reference to a particular word in the sentence, almost always      follows
that word.  Such particles do not occur in languages with   dominant order
VSO.
11. Inversion of statement order so that the verb precedes subject   occurs
only in languages where the question word or phrase is      normally
initial.  This same inversion occurs in yes-no questions   only if it
occurs in interrogative word questions.
12. If a language has dominant order VSO in declarative sentences,   it
always puts interrogative words or phrases forst in         interrogative
word questions; if it has dominant order SOV in      declarative sentences,
there is never such an invariant rule.
13. If the nominal object always precedes the verb, then verb forms
subordinate to the main verb also precede it.
14. In conditional statements, the conditional clause precedes the
  conclusion as the normal order in all languages.
15. In expressions of volition and purpose, a subordinate verbal     form
always follows the main verb as the normal order except in    those
languages in which the nominal object always precedes the    verb.
16. In languages with dominant order VSO, an inflected auxiliary     always
precedes the main verb.  In languages with dominant order   SOV, an
inflected auxiliary always follows the main verb.
17. With overwhelmingly more than chance frequency, languages with
dominant order VSO have the adjective after the noun.
18. When the descriptive adjective precedes the noun, the
demonstrative and the numeral, with overwhelmingly more than       chance
frequency,does likewise.
19. When the general rule is that the descriptive adjective       follows,
there may be a minority of adjectives that usually       precede, but when
the general rule is that the descriptive       adjective adjectives
precede, there are no exceptions.
20. When all ornone of the items - demonstrative, numeral, and
  descriptive adjective - precede the noun, they are always found    in
that order.  If they follow, the order is either the same or
  its exact opposite.
21. If some or all adverbs follow the adjective they modify, then
  the language is one in whichthe qualifying adjective follows the   noun
and the verb precedes its nominal object as the dominant
  order.
22. If in comparisons of superiority the only order or one of the
  alternatives orders is standard-marker-adjective, then the
language is postpositional.  With overwhelmingly more than chance
frequency, if the only order is adjective-marker-standard, the     language
is prepositional.
23. If in apposition, the proper noun usually precedes the common
  noun, then the language is one in which the governing noun       precedes
its dependent genetive.  With much better than chance     frequency, if the
common noun usually precedes the proper noun,    the dependent genetive
precedes its governing noun.
24. If the relative expression precedes the noun either as the only
construction or as an alternative construction either the       language is
post positional or the adjective precedes the noun,    or both.
25. If the pronominal object follows the verb, so does the nominal
  object.
26. If a language has discontinuous affixes, it always has either
  prefixing or suffixing, or both.
27. If a language is exclusively suffixing, it is postpositional;   if it
is exclusively prefixing, it is prepositional.
28. If both the derivation and the inflection follow the root, or   they
both precede the root, the derivation is always between the   root and the
inflection.
29. If a language has inflection, it always has derivation.
30. If the verb has categories of person-number or if it has
categories of gender, it always has tense mode categories.
31. If either the the subject or object noun agrees with the verbin
gender, then the adjective always agrees with the noun in gender.
32. Whenever the verb agrees with the nominal subject or nominal     object
in gender, it also agrees in number.
33. When number agreement between the noun and verb is suspended
  and the rule is based onorder, the case isalways one in which the   verb
is in the singular.
34. No language has a trial number unless it has a dual.  No
  language has a dual unless it has a plural.
35. There is no language in which the plural does not have some
  non-zero allomorphs, whereas there are languages in which the
singular is expressed only by zero.  The dual and the trial are    almost
never expressed only by zero.
36. If a language has the category of gender, it always has the
category of number.
37. A language never has more gender categories in non-singular
  numbers than in the singular.
38. Where there is a case system, the only case which ever has only   zero
allomorphsis the one which includes among its meanings that
  of the subject of the intransitive verb.
39. Where morphemes of both number and case are present and both
  follow or both precede the noun base, the expression of number
  almost always comes between the noun base and the expression of
  case.
40. When the adjective follows the noun, the adjective expresses     all
the inflectional categories of the noun.  In such cases the    noun may
lackovert expression of one or all of these categories.
41. If in a language the verb follows both the nominal subject and
nominal object as the dominant order, the language almost always   has a
case system.
42. All languages have pronominal categories involving at least
  three persons and two numbers.
43. If a language has gender categories in the noun, it has gender
categories in the pronoun.
44. If a language has gender distinctions in the first person, it
  always has gender distinctions in the second or third person or    in both.
45. If there are any gender distinctions in the plural of the
  pronoun, there are some gender distinctions in the singular also.
        ---------------------------------------------------
Phew!
 Robin
        P.S. Reason for funny date on my mail: I am using a timed out version of
Eudora, and keep reviving it by *winding my clock back.*  THERE IS _NO_
QUALCOMM REPRESENTATIVE IN AUSTRALIA: I await their answer to my pidgeon
post letter asking them to PLEASE let me
pay for a registered copy of the current version of Eudora.

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December 2000, Week 5
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