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AUXLANG  September 1998, Week 2

AUXLANG September 1998, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Volapuk & Lonely Planet

From:

Robin Gaskell <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 9 Sep 1998 17:27:27 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (286 lines)

--=====================_905376235==_
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
 
At 02:37 PM 9/4/98 EDT, J.A. Mills wrote:
>Why is it that this list often (daily, in fact) brings up the issue of the
>"success" of the various artificial languages, with every language having its
>own proponents--even Novial--all save Volapuk.  From some of the postings,
>Volapuk is where it all started, and before Esp., it had an enormous
>following.  So, on a list like this one, why isn't anybody studying/fighting
>for Volapuk?
>
>Andy
>
Hi to Andy,
  Yes, there is one strand, on this List, in which people use the AUXLANG
List to demonstrate the designed language they consider best; there is
another whereby people confront one another in English over differences
between constructed languages.
 
  I prefer to see reasoned discussion with proponents giving Auxiliary
Language examples, plus English equivalents, to support their theories.
There should be an Auxlang Archive file somewhere, for you to look back at
past discussion.  But, the only time you get to see a whole string of
different Auxiliary Languages demonstrated, occurs when somebody puts up a
challenge, and asks people to send in their particular auxlang's version of
a set piece of text.
  Perhaps you should offer a challenge, thus, with an English and Volapuk
version of text (preferably not "The Lord's Prayer," it's been done).  I
would necessarily send in a Glosa version.  See my "Signature" for a Glosa
website.
  Appended is "Seminar #2" intended for Third World learners of Glosa.  I
know that some Auxlangers don't get my "Attachments," but they are being
accepted by most ISP's systems: blip me if you don't see "#2" below here,
and would like me to send it to you freshly typed.
 
  On the question of why there is no Volapuk, I had thought it was obvious,
that Auxlang is supposed to be the forward moving edge of the Interlanguage
area of human endeavour.
  As such, we are rolling forward through the newer generations of Designed
Languages, in a very "applied" R&D sort of way.  Although Auxlang can be
historical, it is more or less dedicated to seeing the introduction of a
Global IAL.  My understanding is that Volapuk has been superceded.  To this
point, I quote Glosa as one of the few interlanguages to have been designed
after the advent of computers.  In my understanding of things, the Internet
is a significant player in the interlanguage saga, and an inbuilt facility
for the 'machine handling of information' is a valuable facet for a
potential 'world language' but ... this is only one person's view.
 
Saluta,
 Robin
 vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv Seminar #2 vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv
--=====================_905376235==_
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_A second Seminar on Glosa____________________________R. Gaskell Sept,1998_
-----------------------------______________________------- File: SEMINAR.#2
 
BASIC GRAMMAR RULES
                     There are three basic rules behind the grammar of
Glosa: combined, they tell us 'position determines function'.
 
        1. S-V-O: Subject, Verb, Object order in a clause.
        2. "A word is modified by its precedent."  One word modifies the
             next, and so on.
        3. A word can function, within reason, as any part of speech.
             There are no Part-of-Speech markers, but a word's function is
             indicated by its position in a sentence.
        __________________________________________________________________
        All other rules of Glosa usage follow from these.
All sentences contain a 'verb': it is the word that tells us the action
occurring in the sentence; it gives the sentence _life_.
 
VERBS
        In Glosa, the word in the middle of the sentence, describing the
action, is the 'verb' ('verb' = word functioning as a verb).
 
  EG  U kani bibe u hidra.  ...................  bibe  'verb'
             ~~~~
   [The dog drinks the water.]
 
  EG  An fo hedo bibe.  .......................  hedo  'verb'
            ~~~~   ............................  bibe  'gerund' (verb/noun)
   [He very-much enjoys to drink/drinking.]
 
  EG  Mi don ad un equs id bibe.  .............  don(a)  'verb'
         ~~~        ...........................  bibe  'noun'
   [I give (to) the horse its drink.]
 
N.B. 'verb' =  word functioning as a verb
     'noun' =  word functioning as a noun
      ' X ' =  word functioning as an  X
 
"IS" IN ENGLISH
                 This word is used in many different ways in English, but,
in Glosa, the "is" concept is conveyed more accurately - using a range of
'verbs'.  As an 'action' its original function was to represent an "equals"
sign, EG "He is John."  Glosa translations for various uses of "is" in
English are:-
 
  es  -  to be, is (has equivalence with), has the essence of
  habe - has the property (quality) of
  gene - gets to be, becomes
  eqa - equals, measures
 
Examples:
    Fe es u ju-fe.
   [She is a girl.]
    An es u filosofi-pe.
   [He is a philosopher.]
 
    U meteo habe frigo.
   [The weather is cold/has coldness] [It is cold.]
    Mi habe fo lati.
   [I am very tall/have much tallness.]
 
    U meteo gene ma termo.
   [The weather is warmer/gets warmer/becomes more hot.]
    U ju-an gene fatiga.
   [The boy is tired/becomes tired.]
    Mi habe fo turba; e fu gene koleri, si tu ne sto dice.
   [I am very upset, and will be angry if you don't stop talking.]
 
    U temperatura eqa tri-ze grada (30`C).
   [The temperature is thirty degrees (30`C).]
    U preci de ki-in u teatra eqa mo-penta dolara ($15).
   [The price of entry into the theatre is fifteen dollars ($15).]
 
COMMON 'VERBS'
                In Glosa, some words are used almost exclusively as verbs,
and these are general-purpose verbs, such as:-
 
  habe - to have, have has
  ki  -  to go, go, goes, went
  veni - to come, come, comes, came
  tena - to hold, grab, take
 
VERBOIDS
          Some words, in Glosa, are "almost verbs" but are not "full verbs"
in their own right: they are not 'stand-alone' verbs, but they add to the
meaning of the "full verb", which is usually the final word in the Verb
Phrase.  These Verboids are half-way between Adverbs and Verbs.  Examples:-
 
  posi - possibly
  pote - can, has the ability to
  nece - needs to, must
  lice - be allowed, allow to
  debi - ought to
  hedo - enjoys, happily
  forti - strongly
  seqe - following, sebsequently
  vo(lu) - wish to, would
  tanto - so much, almost
  tosto - soon
 
EG  Mi fu posi ki ad u boteka.
   [I will possibly go to the shop.]
    An pote kurso fo celero.
   [He can run very quickly.]
    Kron mi voka, fe tosto veni in u domi.
   [When I call, she soon comes into the house.]
    Mi gina fu hedo kanta pro vi.
   [My wife will happily sing for you.]
    Tu lice habe id.
   [You are allowed to have it.]
    Pa noktu, mi tanto ariva pre u pluvi.  .. (Pastness implied by "Pa" so
   [Last night I almost arrived before the rain.]  'pa tanto ariva' wrong.)
 
AUXILIARY VERBS
                 These words 'help' the verb to do its job.  But they
usually follow the "main verb" as separate words, though they contribute to
the formation of a "compound verb."  Examples are:-
 
  ana - up   EG  ki ana  [ascend]
  kata - down   EG  ki kata  [descend]
  retro - back   EG  kurso retro  [run back]
  itera - again   EG  akti itera  [do (it) again; repeat]
  ab  -  away   EG  greso ab  [walk away]
  versi - back to start   EG  viagia versi  [travel home]
  avanti - forward   EG  ki avanti  [advance]
 
EG  An pa ki kata un orto-lo; sed an nece skende itera ana id, te
   [He fell down the cliff, but (he) must climb again up it, in order to
 
    gene an kefa-ve; qi veni ab an kefa pre an pa kade.
    get his hat, which came off his head before he fell.]
 
WAYS IN WHICH THE 'VERB' MAY BE MODIFIED
  In Glosa, the word functioning as the verb can be modified by placing
short words, called particles, before it.  These particles might alter the
time of the event, negate it, turn it back on the Subject, or make it
conditional on some other event.  As well as that, the action might act
upon - or not act upon - an Object; and then, for a change, the
positioning Subject and Object is sometimes switched around.
 
. TENSE PARTICLES
                   Dealt with, in detail - in the Tense Table - these short
words, which come at the start of a Verb Phrase, usually singly but
sometimes in a group, tell us WHEN an action occurs.
 
     - No particle before the 'verb' suggest a present tense (but can mean
        that an earlier time indication logically applies).
 pa  -  Simple Past Tense  (pa  [did])
 fu  -  Future Tense  (fu  [will])
 nu  -  An immediate Present Tense  (nu  [just now])
 du  -  Continuous Tense   (du X  [is X-ing, continues to X])
 pra -  Past Perfect Tense: fully completed.   (pra  [had])
 
  EG  Un andra nu pa veni in u domi.
               ~~~~~
     [The man just now came into the house.]
 
CONDITIONAL
             When an action happens only if something else occurs before
it, then we say that the second event is conditional on the first: in
English, this is usually shown by the use of "would", "should" or "could".
 
 sio  -  would
 sio debi - would ought, should
 sio posi - would possibly, could
 
  EG  Si mu gene pluvi, plu-ci sperma sio posi kresce in alti fito.
     [If they get rain, these plants could grow into tall bushes.]
 
NEGATIVE
          When an action does NOT happen, we indicate this using a negative
word before the verb.  This happens in English, and something very similar
occurs in Glosa.
 
 ne  -  does not
 no  -  un-
 nuli - never  (also used with 'nouns':  nuli ra  [no thing])
 ni X ni Y - neither X nor Y
 
  EG  U gina ne ki a plu boteka; ka fe vagona ne ergo.
     [The woman did not go to the shops, because her car did not work.]
 
REFLEXIVE
            When an action affects the person or thing that caused it, we
say that the action is a "reflexive" action.  In Glosa there are two
particles that are used after the 'verb' to indicate that the action is
received by the Subject of the sentence: one if the Subject is human, the
other for non-human Subjects:-
 
 -se  -  to itself, itself
 auto -  to himself/herself, himself/herself, themselves
 
  EG  Jon vagona frakto-se, tem an du age ad an ergo-lo.
     [Jon's car broke itself while he was driving to work (his work-place).]
 
      Kron fe skende kata plu grada; fe pa kade, e noku auto.
     [When she descended the stairs, she fell and hurt herself.]
 
TRANSITIVE/
        /INTRANSITIVE   While the standard English sentence, has two Noun
Phrases separated by a Verb Phrase, some sentences have no real Object -
receiver of the action: these are called "intransitive" sentences. Glosa
also follows this pattern:-
 
  Transitive  S-V-O   EG  U kani fago u karni.  [The dog eats the meat.]
  Intransitive  S-V   EG  U kani voka.    [the dog barks.]
  Intransitive  S-V(-IO)  EG   U kani voka ad u posta-pe.
   IO --> Indirect Object     [The dog barks at the post-man.]
 
PASSIVE
 VOICE   While most of English and Glosa has the normal structure where
         the thing doing the action comes first, and whatever receives the
action comes last (called Active Voice), both languages allow the reciever
of the action to get a mention at the start of the sentence (called Passive
Voice).  It can be thought of as an (O-) V (-S) sentence:-
 
 X V Y  -  X does action V to Y   EG  U kani morda un andra.
  .................................  [The dog bites the man.]
 
 Y gets V-ed by X  -  Y has action V done to it by X
  EG  Un andra gene ge-morda ex u kani.
     [The man gets bitten by the dog.]
 
 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
 
--=====================_905376235==_
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May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
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March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
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September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
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August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
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July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
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August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
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July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
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October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
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August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
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July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
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May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
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April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
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March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
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February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
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August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
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July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
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June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
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May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
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March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
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February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
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September 2002, Week 2
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June 2002, Week 5
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June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
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May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
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August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
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July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
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May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
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August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
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June 2000, Week 5
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April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
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April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
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March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
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February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
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January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
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November 1999, Week 5
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October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
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June 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
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April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
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March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
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July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
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May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
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April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
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March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
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February 1997, Week 3
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February 1997, Week 1

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