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CONLANG  December 1998, Week 3

CONLANG December 1998, Week 3

Subject:

Re: List of natlangs

From:

Joshua Shinavier <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Joshua Shinavier <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 18 Dec 1998 11:55:15 +0100

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (959 lines)

Hello fellow language loons :)

No, I'm not gone yet, I've just been busy making sure I will be, day after
tomorrow.  Many thanks to everyone who has helped with the natlang list --
I now post it for the second-to-last time; corrections, further entries and
such may be sent in today and I'll edit the list one last time before handi=
ng
it over to Carlos, who may worry about the final format, etymologies and al=
l
that :-)

Questions:
  Ferke, why have you given two entirely different Mandarin names for China=
?
  These look like related dialects; if they are, what are their names?
     Zhong guo ren min gong he guo (people's rep. of China)
     ...
     Ta Chung-hwa Min-Kuo (Republic of China)


'later, JJS





NOTES:
  * One proposed form of the entries for this list goes as follows, and has
    been used for some entries so far:
      L =3D name(s) of the Language - possibly the dialects
      C =3D name(s) of the Country (countries) - full and common
      S =3D name(s) of the resident or/and the Speaker
      A =3D Adjective(s)
      O =3D Occurrence (spoken in)
      R =3D Remarks (comments)
  * Some poss. helpful websites:
      The Human Languages Page:  http://www.june29.com/HLP/
      Ethnologue:  http://gamma.sil.org/ethnologue/
=20
             =3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=
=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=
=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D
                 =20
Adele:
  in Adele: Gidire [...]
  person: Bidire [...]


Afrikaans:
  Country: Suid-Afrika (in Dutch: Zuid-Afrika)
  Language: Afrikaans
  Person: Afrikaaner

Akan:


Akha:


Akkadian:


Albania:
  Albanian, Gheg:
  Albanian, Tosk:
    Country: Shqipe:ria
    Language: shqip
    Person: shqiptar
   =20
  L - shqipe [Sk;i.pE]
    2 dialects: Gegian (north), Toskian (south)
  C - Republika e Shqipe:rise: [Sk;[log in to unmask];i.s@], Shqipe:ria [Sk;[log in to unmask];ja]
  S - Shqip(e:)tar [Sk;i.p(@)'tar]
  A - ?
  O - Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Dalmatia (Arbe:nesh), Greece
    (Arbe:rishte), southern Italy (Arbe:resh), Bulgaria, Ukraina and emigra=
nts
    in Italy and USA
  E - ?; cf. shqipoj [Sk;.'pOj]? 'I speak intelligible'
  R
  (1) I don't know the orig. names of the dialects.
  (2) stress ?


Alemannic:
  in German: Alemannisch [Al.E'mAn.iS]
  Allemannisch, together with Boarisch, Plautdietsch, Saechsich,=20
    Letzebuergesch and Koelsch, are not merely dialects; they are separate=
=20
    languages.  Very closely related in some cases, but separate langs=20
    nevertheless.
 =20
 =20
Amharic:


Andorra (Principat d'Andorra):
  languages:
    Catalan-Valencian-Balear:
      lang: ... [...]
      adj: ... [...]
      spoken in:
        Andorra (31,000; 61% of population)
        other countries (4,353,000 or more speakers)
          Spain
          France
          Italy
          USA
          Latin America
          western Europe
          Algeria
    -->French
    -->Spanish (Castilian)


Arabic:
  Language: al-=91arabiyya al-fus.h.a`
    (OR al-fas.i-h.a) 'pure Arabic', i.e. 'classical'
  Person (Arab):
    al-=91arabi- 'Arab'
    al-=91arab 'Arabs' nomen generis
  Countries:
    Republic of Iraq: [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya al i.'ra.qi.ya]
    Syrian Arab Republic: [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya al 'a.ra.bi.ya as 'su.ri.ya]
    Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya:
      [al dZa.ma.'hi.ri.ya al 'a.ra.bi.ya al iS.ti.'ra.ki.ya al Sa.'?a.bi.y=
a=20
      al 'lib.ya]
    Islamic Republic of Mauritania:=20
     [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya al mus.'li.mi.ya al mau.ri.'ta.ni.ya]
    Republic of Yemen: [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya al ya.'ma.ni.a]
    Democratic & Popular Republic of Algeria:
      [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya al dZa.za.'?i.ri.ya di.muq.'ra.ti.ya aS Sa.'?a.bi.=
ya]
    State of Kuwait: ['daw.lat al ku.wajt]=20
    Sultanate of Oman: ['sal.ta.nat u.'man]
    United Arab Emirates: [al 'i.ma.rat al 'a.rab.i.ya al 'mut.ta.hi.da]
    State of Qatar: ['daw.lat al 'qa.tar]
    State of Bahrain: ['daw.lat al 'bah.rain]
    Kingdom of Morocco: [al 'mam.la.kah al 'maG.rE.bi.ya] (G =3D voiced vel=
ar=20
fric)
    FEderal Islamic Republic of the Comoros:
       ['dZum.hu.ri.ya al 'qu.mur al 'it.Ta.di.ya al 'is.la.mi.ya]
    State of Eritrea: ['daw.lat al E.rit.'rE.a]
    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: [al 'mam.la.kah al 'a.rab.i.ya as 'sa.?u.di.ya=
]
    Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan:=20
      [al 'mam.la.kah al 'ur.dun.ni.yah al 'ha.SE.mi.yah]
    Republic of Djibouti: [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya al dZi.'bu.ti]
    Republic of Lebanon: [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya al lub.'na.ni.ya]
    Republic of Sudan: [al 'dZam.hu.ri.yat as su.'dan]
    Arab Repuiblic of Egypt: ['dZum.hu.ri.ya misr al 'r.ra.bi.ya]
    Republic of Tunisia: [al 'dZum.hu.ri.ya at tu.'ni.si.yah]


Armenia:
  Country: Hayastan


Assamiese:


Austria:
  in German:  =D6sterreich ['Wst.Er.rAjx]
  national language is -->German.
  other languages:
    Allemannisch:
      Country: Eisterraisch ['Ajst.Er.rAjS]


Awadhi:


Azerbaijani:


Belarus:


Basque:=20
  Country: Euskadi (stress on ultimate syl)
  Language: Euskara/Euskera
  Person: Euskaldun


Belarus:
  Country: Belarus
  Language: belarusskiy yazyk
  Adjective: belarusskiy


Bengali:


Bhojpuri:


Bulgarian:
  Country: B'lgariya (' =3D schwa)
  Adjective: b'lgarski


Burme
  Country: Myanmase:


Cebuano:


Chhattisgarhi:


China:
  Country: chung kuo (?) chung guo [is this Mandarin?]


Chinese:
  see -->Mandarin
      -->Wu
      -->Yue
      -->Min Nan
      -->Jinyu
      -->Xiang
      -->Hakka
      -->Min Bei


Colombia:
  Country: Colombia /ko'lombja/ (Colombia or Columbia)
  Adjective: colombiano /kolom'bjano/
  National: colombiano | colombiana
  Language: espan~ol /espa'Jol/ (Spanish)
  Etimology: Named after Christoforu Colombus.  Some times translated into
  English as Columbia for the same reason.
  Ethnic groups:  Many aboriginal groups with no clear supremacy from any
  of them, descendents of Spaniards and other Europeans and from Black
  Africans brought as slaves.  Very mixed.


Croatian:=20
  Country: Hrvatska
  Adjective: hrvatski
  Person: (m) hrvat; (f) hrvatka (?)


Czech:
  Country:  C^eska Republika (^ =3D Hachek)
  Adjective: c^esky' (' =3D acute)


Danish:
  national language of -->Denmark
  in Danish: dansk [d&nsk]
  adj: dansk [d&nsk]
  person from Denmark (i.e. Dane): danskere ['d&n.sgO]
  *note that Danes don't capitalize these terms.


Deccan:


Denmark:
  national language is -->Danish
  in Danish: Danmark ['d&n.mark]


Dutch:


Dzonkha:
  Country: Kingdom of Bhutan [druk gjal xab]


England:
  in English: England ['INg.land]
  adj, person: English ['INg.liS]

English:
  widely spoken language originating in -->England
  in English: English :-) ['iNg.lIS]
  adj.: English ['iNg.liS]


Estonian:
  language: eesti keel ['e:s.ti ke:l]
  person: eestlane ['e:st.la.nE]
  country: Republic of Estonia: Eesti Vabariik ['e:s.ti va.pa.ri:k]


Farsi:
  Country: Islamic Republic of Iran: [dZumhuri e eslami e irAn]


Finnish:
  (see -->Finland)


Finland: Suomi ['suo.mi]
  Finnish (adjective/language/person): suomalainen ['suo.mA.lAi.nen]

  The "S"s are pretty heavily labialized, and the "L" is the "dark"
  variety.


France:
  in French: France [frAs] (with nasalized /A/)
  adj.: fran=E7ais [frA'se] (with nasalized /A/)


French:
  language spoken in -->France and other European countries, Africa, etc.
  in French: fran=E7ais [frA'se] (with nasalized /A/)
  adj.: fran=E7ais [frA'se] (with nasalized /A/)
      (fem. form is fran=E7aise [frA'sEz] (with nazalized /A/)


Gan:


German:
  national language of Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein
  in German: Deutsch [dojtS]
  Dialects:
    Bavarian:
      High German for Bavaria: Bayern ['bAj.Ern]
      lang: Bayrisch ['bAj.riS] or Bayerisch ['bAj.Er.iS]
      adj.: bayrisch ['bAj.riS] or bayerisch ['bAj.Er.iS]
      adj./lang in Bavarian: boarisch ([[log in to unmask]], the [r] being a velar
        approximant)


Germany:
  national langauge --> German
  in German: Deutschland ['dojtS.lant] (final /d/ as an unaspirated [t])
  adj., person: deutsch [dojtS]


Greek:
  Country: Ellas
  Language: ellinikai
 =20
  greece: 'ella'da
  person:
    male: 'e'llEnas, 'e'llEn
    female: 'ellEni'da, 'ellEni's
  lang, adj: 'ellEniko's

  I have used roman equivalents of greek letters E-is eta: historically lon=
g
  e, but now pronounced as i (AFAIR)
  '- historical breathing, not changes pronountiation in modern greek
  a'-stressed a
  o'-stressed 0
  e'-stressed e


Gujarati:


Hakka:


Haryanvi:


Hausa:


Hiligaynon:


Hindi:
  language spoken primarily in India
  in Hindi: Hindi ['hInd.i]
  person: Hindustani [hIn.du'stA.ni]
 =20

Hungarian: magyar (gy =3D palatalised d)
  Country: Magyarorsz=E1g (=E1 =3D long, open a)
  Language, Person: magyar


Iceland:
  in Icelandic: =CDsland ['is.lant] (soft final [t])
  person from Iceland: =CDslendingur ['is.lEnd.IN.ur] (not sure about stres=
s)
  adj.: =EDslensk ['is.lEnsk]
 =20
  Stress in Icelandic is always on the first syllable, with secondary=20
  stress on 3rd, 5th, etc. syllables.

   =20
Icelandic:
  spoken in -->Iceland
  in Icelandic: =CDslenska ['is.leN.ska]
  adj.: =EDslensk ['is.lensk]
  Icelandic vowels:
    a  =3D [A], [a]
    e  =3D [E]
    i, y  =3D [I]
    o  =3D [o]
    u  =3D [u] -- "the /u/ is an IPA o with a  line thru it"
    o' =3D [ou]
    a' =3D [au]
    u' =3D [long u] (as opposed to long o-linethru)
    e' =3D [je]
    i', y' =3D [i:]


Igbo:


Ilocano:


Indonesian:
  Langauge: Bahasa Indonesia


Ireland:
  ireland: e'ire(e:ri)
  person: e'ireannach (e:r@n@x)
  lang: gaeilge (gelin') - n' - palatalised n
  (AFAIK writing and pronountiation may be different in different dialects =
-
  I wrote it in _an mhumhain_ - munster?? dialect)


Italian:
  Country: Italia [i'ta.li.a] (pronounciation unsure)
  Language/Adjective/Person: Italiano [i.ta.li'a.no] (pronounciation unsure=
)


Japan (lang: Japanese, adj: Japanese, nat: Japanese)
  Country: Nihon ([ni.hOn])
  Language: Nihongo ([ni.hON.go])
  Adjective: Nihon no (?) ([ni.hOn no])
  Nationality: Nihonjin (ni.hOn.dZin])
    I'm not entirely sure on the syllable-final n's/
 =20
  Nippon [nip'pOn] is an alternate (more formal?) form. "Nihon no" is not
  technically an adjective AFAIK but the equivalent of "of Japan." The
  first three are accented on the second syllable, not sure about
  "nihonjin". "Nihongo" can also be pronounced (in the Tokyo dialect)
  [ni'hON.No].


Javanese:


Jinyu:


Kannada:


Kazakh:
  Country: Qazaqstan


Khmer:
  Country: Kampuch=E9a


Korean:
  Country: Democratic People's Republic of Korea:
           Choson Minjujui Inmin Konghuaguk


Kurmanji:


Lombard:


Luxembourg:
  Language: L=EBtzebuergesch (Luxembourgeois)
  Country: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg:
            Grousherzogdem L=EBtzebuerg ['grous.hEr.tsog.dEm [log in to unmask]]
  Langauge: l=EBtzebuergesche Sprooch [[log in to unmask]@ Spro:x]


Macedonian:
  Country: Makedonia
  Language: makedonski ezik


Madura:


Magahi:


Maithili:


Malay:


Mandarin:
  Language: han/y=FC<  (< =3D falling-rising tone, / =3D rising tone)
  Country: zhonguo (Zhong guo ren min gong he guo (people's rep. of China))
 Language: [xan4 jY3] (the number indicates the tone)


Marathi:


Min Bei:


Min Nan:


Napoletano-Calabrese:


Nepali:

New Zealand:
  in English: New Zealand [nju zi:l'nd]
    adj: New Zealand (for nationality not language)
    person: New Zealander [nju zi:l'nd']

  in Maori: Aotearoa or Niu Tireni
    adj: Ingarihi (English), Maaori (Maori)
    person: Paakekaa (of European descent), Maaori (of Maori descent)
    (In Maori a doubled vowel marks lengthening, more commonly written, wit=
h
    a macron)


Norway:
  national language: -->Norwegian
  in Norwegian: Norge ['nor.jE] or Noreg ['nor.Eg]
    'Norge' is bokm=E5l, 'Noreg' is nynorsk, both are valid.


Norwegian:
  spoken in -->Norway
  in Norwegian: Norsk [norsk]
  adj: norsk [norsk]


Oriya:


Oromo:


Panjabi:
  Eastern Panjabi:
  Western Panjabi:


Pashto:


Philippines:
   country name:
      -"Republika ng Pilipinas" [re'pu:blika naN pili'pi:nas].
      -Commonly called "Pilipinas" [pili'pi:nas]

   national language:
      -"Pilipino" [pili'pi:noh] - based on "Tagalog"
      [ta'ga:log], the language spoken in and around Manila
      (locally called "Maynila" [maj'ni:lah]).

   a Filipino (anyone from the Philippines regardless of mother-
   tongue):
      -"Pilipino" [Pilipi:noh].
      -Colloquially this is "Pinoy" [pi'noj].
      -Both of the above terms are also used as adjectives.

   a native Tagalog-speaker:
      "Tagalog" [ta'ga:log], apparently a contraction of "taga
      ilog" [taga'?i:log] meaning 'dweller from the river' or
      'river-dweller'.

   a Tagalog from Manila:
      -"Tagamaynila" [tagamaj'ni:lah].
      -"Maynila" [maj'ni:lah] is apparently a contraction of "may
      nilad" [maj 'ni:lad] meaning 'there are nilad flowers', thus
      "tagamaynila" originally meant a 'dweller from the place
      with nilad flowers'.


Poland: Polska ['pOl.ska]
  Polish (adjective/language): polski ['pOl.ski]
  Polish person: (m.) polak ['pOl.ak], (f.) polka ['pOl.ka]
  lang/adj: polski (fem adj. polska, netutr. polskie)


Polish:
  L- polski ['pOl.sk;i]
    most important dialects:
      kaszubski [ka.'Sup.sk;i], mal/opolski [,ma.wO.'pOl.sk;i], s'la;ski
      [s^lO~.sk;i], wielkopolski [,v;El.kO.'pOl.sk;i], mazowiecki
      [,ma.zO.'v;E.tsk;i]
  C - Rzeczpospolita Polska [ZEtS.,pOs.pO.'l;i.ta 'pOl.ska]; Polska
    ['pOl.ska]
  S - m. Polak ['pO.lak], f. Polka ['pOl.ka]
  A - m. polski ['pOl.sk;i], f. polska ['pOl.ska], n. polskie ['pOl.sk;E]
  O - Poland, Belarus, Ukraina, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Kazakhstan,
    Bohemia and emigrants in USA, Canada, England, France, Germany, Brazil,
    Australia, Sweden, Belgium...
  E - connected with tribe's name pl. Polanie [pO.'la.n^E], ?from pole
    ['pO.lE] 'field'
  R
  (1) [s], [z], [ts], [dz], [n] - dental
    [S], [Z], [tS], [dZ] - alveolar
    [s^], [z^], [ts^], [dz^], [n^] - palatal



Portugal (lang/adj/nat.: Portguese)
  Country: Portugal ([pOr.tu'gau]?)
      With several accents: (hard to say which one is the standard;
      the first one is what I beleive to be the Portugal's accent.)
        /purtu'gal/
        /pOhtu'gaw/
        /pohtu'gaw/
        /puhtu'gaw/
        /portu'gaw/
  Lang/Adj./Nat.: Portugue^s ([pOr.tu'ges]?)
        /purtu'gejZ/ <- no typo here
        /pOhtu'gejz/
        /pohtu'gejz/
        /puhtu'gejz/
        /portu'gejz/


Romani, Vlach:
  a Gypsy language
  ...


Romania:
  in Romanian: ... [...]
  in Macedo: ... [...]
  languages:
    -->Romanian
    -->Macedo


Romania (romInia):
  limba romana (limba romIna)

Russian:
  Country: Rossiya
  Language: Russkiy yazyk
  Adjective: russkiy

  country: ro'sija (in writing, but in reading rasija becouse of stress)
  adj: r'uskij(m), r'uskaja(f), ?r'uskoje(n)
  lang: r'uskij (jaz'yk) (stressed i)
  person: ?
  j is english y
  y is a vowel written by char similar to 'bI' and is something between i a=
nd
  e or i u i'm not shure
  ' before stressed syllabe


Rwanda:


Saraiki:


Serbian:
  Country: Srbija
  Adjective: srpski
  Person: (m) srbin; (f) srpkinja


Shona:


Sindhi:


Sinhala:


Slovak Republic (separated from Czechoslovakia in 1993)
  country name: Slovenska' republika ('=3D3D acute)
  national language: slovenc^ina (^=3D3D hachek)
  NB: Slovak is the official language, but Hungarian is widely spoken in
  Southern Slovakia. There is also a sizable Roma ("gypsy") population.
  Until the ethnic ravages and dislocations of WWII, Slovak, Czech,
  German, Hungarian, Yiddish, Romany, and Ruthenian were all spoken in
  Slovak territory.
  Slovak person: slova'k (m), slovenka (f)
  Slovak (adj): slovensky' (m), slovenska' (f), slovenske' (n)
  pronunciation: the accent in Slovak always falls on the first syllable.
  orthography: Czech was used as a literary language in Slovakia until the
  19th century, when L'udovit S^tu'r definitively codified Slovak as a
  written language.
  etymology: The word "Slovak" is derived from the word for "Slavic"
  (slovensky'=3DSlovak; slovansky'=3DSlavic). Slovak and Czech are distinct
  but mutually intelligible languages. Slovak also has a close affinity to
  Polish. According to the Slovaks themselves, Slovak is a good first
  language from which to learn other Slavic languages such as Polish,
  Serbian, and Russian.

  Ferenc's critique: I would disagree...I would suggest Slovenian or Serbia=
n
    (in that order) due to their archaicness and closeness to Old Slavic.
   =20
   =20
Somali:


Spain (lang: Spanish, adj.: Spanish, nat: Spaniard/Spanish
  Country: Espan~a ([Es'pa.Ja] - [J] =3D palatal nasal)
  Language/Adj/Nat.: espan~ol ([Es.pa'JOl]
    Espan~ola [Es.pa'JO.la] is feminine

Sunda:


Sweden:
  national language: --> Swedish
  in Swedish: Sverige ['sver.i.jE]

  Country: Sverige /'sve:rije/ (Sweden)
  Adjective: svensk /svEnsk/ (Swedish)
  National: svensk | svenska (Suede)
  Language: svenska /'svEn.ska/ (Swedish)
  Etimology:
    "Sverige" short for "Sveas Rike" meaning "Contry of the Swedes".
    "Sweden" I don't know, probably from Germanic plural for "Swedes".
  Also found in German as "Schweden"
  Ethnic groups:
    Svea (Swede)
    Go"te (Goth)
    Sami (Lapp in Swedish and English; Sami is the name they use for themse=
lves)
    Skaaningar (Scanians, Danes living in Southern Sweden)


Swedish:
  national language of --> Sweden
  in Swedish: Svenska ['svEn'skA]


Switzerland:
  national languages:
    --> French (official language)
    --> German (official language)
    --> Italian (official language)
    --> Rhaeto-Romanish
  in French: Suisse [suis]
  in German: Schweiz [SvAjts]
  in Italian: Svizzera [svItzera] (I think...)
  in Rhaeto-Romanish: ... [...]
=20

Tagalog:


Tamil:


Tatar:


Telugu:


Thai:


Tibet:
  Country: P''h/u/  where /u/ is the German umlaut "u" and P'h is the heavi=
ly
    aspirated P.
  Language P'h/u/  beh keh


Tongan:=20
  Country: Kingdom of Tonga [pule?aNa toNga]


Tukano - (an interesting li'l lang in present day South America: the
  people have a social taboo that one must marry outside one's
  native linguistic group, which means _everyone_ is bilingual prettymuch)R=
emo=20
[re'mo], a
  small tribal language spoken only by a few
  hundred or thousand people in Northern India (it's one of those interesti=
ng
  Austronesian languages that's nowhere near where it should be).
  Fun fact:  they have only one word for both green and blue.


Turkish:
  Country: T=FCrkiye Cumhuriyeti (dZumhurijeti)
  Language: t=FCrk=E7e (tyrktSe)


Ukranian:
  Country: Ukra=EFna
  Adjective: ukra=EFnskii


Uralic ethnonyms/adjectives:
  Mansi (Vogul): man's'i (' =3D acute; shows palatalisation)
  Khanty (Ostyak): xanti
  Karelian: karjalainen (adj), Country: Karjala
  Livonian: liiv=F5 (adj), raandali/liivli (person)
  Sami (Lappish): s=E1bmelas^ (person); s=E1pme (country); s=E1megiella (la=
ng)
  Olonets: anus (low back unrounded a)
  Ludian: lyydi(y =3D =FC)
  Mari (Cheremis): country: Mari-El

  (Non-Uralic ex-Soviet):
    Bashkir: country: Bashkortostan
    Tajik: To=E7ikiston (=E7 =3D tS)


Urdu:
  Country: Pakistan: [islami dZamhurija-e-pakistan]


Uyghur:


Uzbek:


Vatican City:
  Country: Status Civitatis Vaticanae


Vietnamese:
  lang: tieng viet (with some diacritics...)
 =20
Votic: vad,d,aa (d, =3D d with a comma under it =3D Hungarian gy)
  Country: vad,d,amaa (aa =3D long a, as in father; a =3D same, but short)
  Person: vad,d,alain, vad,d,ako
  Language: vad,d,aa c^eeli (c^ =3D c-hachek)
=20
 =20
Wales:
  lang: Welsh & English, both official
  adj: Welsh
  nat: Welshman/Welshwoman
  Country: Cymru /'k^mr!/
  Language: Cymraeg /k^m'raeg/
  Adjective: Cymreig /'k^mr@ig/
  Nationality: Cymro /'k^mro/, Cymraes /k^m'raes/

  Note: ! is the 'barred i' or high, mid vowel similar to Russian bI in Nor=
th
  Wales - in South Wales it is simply [i].


Welsh:
  see -->Wales
 =20
 =20
Wu:


Xiang:


Yiddish:


Yoruba:


Yue:


Zhuang:


Zulu:


Ancient langs (mostly extinct): =3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=
=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D

Ugaritic
Minoan Linear A
Minoan Linear B - early dialect of Greek
Lydian - A(sia) M(inor)
Lycian - AM
Luwian (aka Luvian) - AM
Hittite - AM
Hieroglyphic Hittite - AM
Elamitic - Fertile crescent
Thracian - B(alkans)
Ilyrian -Bal
Dacian - Bal
Oscan -It(aly)
Umbrian - It
Sabine - It
Venetic -It
Etruscan - It
Messapic - It (?)
Hieroglyphic Akkadian - FC
Sumerian - FC
Vedic Sanskrit
Pali - a la the Buddhist Sutras
all the Prakrits (Gujarat, Hindi, Bengali, etc.)
   (in this column, their ancestral proto-forms of course)


Protolangs: =3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=
=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=
=3D=3D=3D=3D

Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Romance
Proto-Italic
Proto-Germanic
Proto-(every other branch of IE)
Proto-Sinitic - East Asia
Proto-Hamitic -Africa
Proto-Semitic - Middle East
Amerindian - well, duh :)
Nadene - northwest North America
Eskimo-Aleut - really really northwest NA
Proto-Salishan  - ditto
(then for the last two, their modern correlates:
Inuktitut
Wahatch Salish (I'm not sure that's the name)


          =3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3DPeople who helped make this list=
:=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D=3D

                       P.M. Arktayg
                       Daniel Baysden         =20
                       Josh Brandt-Young
                       Raymond A. Brown
                       Eric Christopherson
                       Oliver Cromm
                       Gustavo Eulalio
                       David Jacoby
                       Kristian Jensen
                       Lucasso
                       Daniel J. O'Neil
                       Josh Shinavier
                       Andrew Smith
                       Taliesin
                       Nik Taylor
                       Carlos Thompson
                       Ferenc Gy. Valoczy
                       Tom Wier

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March 2005, Week 1
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August 2002, Week 1
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July 2002, Week 1
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