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CONLANG  January 1999, Week 2

CONLANG January 1999, Week 2

Subject:

NGL:Vector tense #13

From:

Gerald Koenig <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Constructed Languages List <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 10 Jan 1999 01:56:38 -0800

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (273 lines)

                  INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES

Vector tense has need of infinitives because the stem forms which could
be declared infinitive are used for a default present tense, and vector
tense has need of participles for use in connection with VST (space)
verbs of abstract motion. I have developed the instant grammars which I
hope will be tested by NGLers.  I have endeavored throughout not to
adversely impact TVS or PVS grammar. I have coined various words which
are proposed only in case there are no alternative proposals in existence.
I have only the original Ogden set vocabulary, and I regret not using
the many new words under discussion and seconded.

                           INFINITIVES

INFIXED FORM:
Ex. <kon->  Stem for "knows". It is default present tense in VXT.
     wo kon.  He/She knows.

   <kIRon>  To know. The infinitive form obtained by insertion of "ir"
   before the first vowel, "o".

   <fIRili> To love. The infinitive form obtained by insertion of "ir"
   before the first vowel, "i", in the stem <fili->.

   kiron iza je firili iza.
   To know her is to love her.

   "iza" is the direct object pronoun formed from the vtt nominative
   pronoun za (she) by adding the i prefix. The a can be dropped.
   "je" is have/be.

                    INFINITIVE AFFIXES

Infinitive affixes tag the grammatical role the infinitive plays in the
sentence.

INFINITIVE: (to verb)

Noun      <stem>in              Konin iza je filin iza.
Form                            To know her is to love her.
                                subject noun and predicate nominative noun.
                                kon- and fili- are the stems.
                                je-; have/be.


Adjective <stem>im              Ha ju je hais reyla feim.
Form                            He had his job to do.
                                feim (fe-im) modifies noun reyla.
                                ju is VXT past perfect marker;
                                the constant at the end of a remote
                                past vector.

Adverb    <stem>if              Ha fu vup fil(i)if iha.
Form                            Haf vup filisif ih.
                                He will try to love him.
                                Adverb phrase of manner.
                                (the use of the s is explained below)
---------------------------------------------------------------

                    PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, VERBALS.

Working through the centuries-old thicket of terminology surrounding
the participles and gerund, we find underneath the core concept of an
action packaged as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb; an action which
is ongoing, or imperfect, or perfect, an action which is not defined as
locked to the past, present, or future, but rather an infinitively
tensed action like the infinitive itself.

To gramaticalize these states, these objects, the VTT tense particles
ad (pAst, Dextro) em (tE, Member), and ke (universal end-constant of
vectors, renamed ek), are called upon. Three new suffixes to classify
the role of the participial forms are i, for adjectival, o, for
adverbial, and u for noun phrasal use. Also, the new general infixes
im, id, ik, are introduced which simplify the grammar when desired.
"IM"-ember marks a word as a Present Participle (-ing), "ID"-extro as a
Past Participle (-ed), and "IK" as a Perfect Participle (having -ed).
The simple infixes identify the verb as to type of participle, but do
not further identify the functional role as noun, adjective, or adverb.
For that new suffixes are adduced.

GENERAL FORM OF THE PARTICIPLE.

<STEM->(s){u|i|o}{em|ad|ek}

EX:
<fili> love, V
filisiem faman
loving man; loving is an adjective.
filisiad maman; loved woman; loved is an adjective.

DEFINITIONS:
(s)  is interposed between replicate or triplicate vowels as the
     phonology requires. The s goes before the last two vowels.
u::- declares a noun function of the participle. AKA a gerund.
i::- declares an adjective function of the participle.
o::- declares an adverbial function of the participle.

em::- declares a Present Participle, -ing, -ando,-iendo..[add your language]
ad::- declares a Past Participle, -ed, en, ..-ado..-ido,.[add your language]
ek::- declares a Perfect Participle, having <verb>-ed...

SHORT INFIX FORMS OF THE PARTICIPLE.
Previously I introduced the first infixes into NGL grammar with the
ad,em,um particles. Now I am retracting them from that use which was
something of a redundancy in favor of more useful forms. Infixes are
inserted before the first vowel in the stem of a verb. If the verb has
an initial vowel, the rule is the same, the "infix" is prefixed.

im::- infix which changes a stem to a Present Participle, -ing.
kIMori, running, from <kori>, run.

id::- infix which changes a stem to a Past Paticiple, -ed,en,n,etc.
kIDori, run, from <kori->
tIDok, talked, from <tok->, talk.

ek::- infix which changes a stem to a Perfect Participle, "having -ed".
(see examples below.)

PRESENT PARTICIPLE. -ing-->em

[present indicative for comparison]
0. Verb: He is running.
         ha em kori. or ha kori.

NOUN ROLE u  u+em=uem
1 Running is work.
  korisuem je *julyase.
  Talking is fun.
  tokuem je 'uh.

ADJECTIVE ROLE i  i+em=iem
2  Running water is clean.
   korisiem vod je *likla.

ADVERB ROLE o o+em=oem
3 They are going running.
  su em tibe korisoem.
  Piscando tempus triuit. [Thanks very much to Ray Brown for his post]
  He spends his time [in] fishing.
  ha *nasir has cik poisosoem.

I take piscando, "in fishing", to be adverbial in sense, functioning
as an adverb of manner, telling the  how, or perhaps a locative telling
where (away), in any case it is adverbial. I find the ablative case to be a
mixed bag with mostly adverbial sense.
This example assumes that the NGL verb for fish is <poiso>.

GENERAL PRESENT PARTICIPLE INFIX FORM:  IM=ing.
Whether noun, adjective, or adverb, the infix form is the same.

NOUN
Running is work.
kimori je *julyase.

ADJECTIVE
Running water is clean.
vod kimori je *likla.
kimori'i vod *likla.

The infixed participle kimori'i is marked as an adjective due to its
position, ie not following the noun it modifies. Note that the full
forms are inherently marked and allow freedom of placement in the
sentence order.

ADVERB
They are going running.
su em tibe kimori.
-----------------------------------------------------

PAST PARTICIPLE  -ed-->-ad

0.[past imperfect for comparison]
  She ran.
  za pa kori.

1 NOUN u  u+ad=uad
  The hunters will become the <hunted>.
  ku *pirdores fu je ku <*pirdoruad>.

2 ADJECTIVE i  i+ad=iad
  The <sunken> ship was found.
  ku <*dinkosiad> :stephen?: pa *ahiv.

 "dinko" is a shortened form of the vector space term dizinko which will
  be introduced in a revision. The meaning is still, "displaced in the
  negative k direction (downward)".

3 ADVERB o  o+ad=oad
  She lived  <loved> by all her family and friends.
  za pa je?  <filisoad> a? zupo zas ubos et hixes.

  <Loved> is an adverb of manner modifying the verb live, answering the
  question, how?
  This example shows that the tense of the participial is not tied to
  the (past indicative) tense of the main verb. The love goes on without
  her being alive. Infinitive tense is independent of the tense of the
  main clause verb.

GENERAL PAST PARTICIPLE INFIX FORM: ID

  The hunters will become the <hunted>.
  ku *pirdores fu je ku <*pirirdor.>

  The <sunken> ship was found.
  ku <*didinko> :stephen?: pa *ahiv.

  She lived  <loved> by all her family and friends.
  za pa je?  <fidili> a zupo zas ubos et hixes.
-----------------------------------------------------
PERFECT PARTICIPLE. EK. having verb-ed. ed-->ek

NOUN, NOUN PHRASE, NP. u. u+ek=uek
1 <His having forgiven them> cleared the air.
  < has *nagiraruek> isu pa limpa ku oha.
  *nagirar forgive, V.

DIGRESSION:
see FOOTNOTE1

ADJECTIVE i. i+ek=iek
The moving finger writes, and <having writ> moves on, ...
Ku pasiem pav tog, et <togiek>, pas...

<togiek> is an adjectival perfect participle modifying the noun pav,
finger.  Pas is the VST verb for movement along a path, usually it is
suffixed with a direction, il, ju, ko, etc. Note that the embedded i
marks it as an adjective, so its position conforms to the TVS
cheat-sheet rules, which require adjectives not following their nouns
to be marked.

ADVERB o, o+ek=oek
[pronunciation advice based on hard experience:
Let oe be pronounced as the a in aim unless you're German speaking.
G. kOEnig.]

She was sleeping , <having drunk> some wine.
za am hapcu , <pairoek> l lokla.

<pairoek> modifies hapcu and is adverbial.


           GENERAL PERFECT PARTICIPLE INFIX FORM EK

<His having forgiven them> cleared the air.
< has *nekgirar> isu pa limpa ku oha.
*nagirar forgive, V.

The moving finger writes, and <having writ> moves on, ...
Ku pasiem pav tog, et <tekog>, pas...


She was sleeping , <having drunk> some wine.
za am hapcu , <pekair> l lokla.

=================================================

FOOTNOTE1

The use of the possesive with the perfect participle here is almost
mandatory in English. I wish to introduce a concept derived from the
Spanish ("lo") here which instead packages the phrase as an event.

*len::- an abstraction for an entire following phrase or predication.

EX
*len <*nagiraruek isu> pa limpia ku oha.
The event of (having forgiven them) cleared the air.

---------------------------
Gerald Koenig

May NGL grammar be consonant with the Grammar of the Universe.

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September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
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August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
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June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
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September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
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July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
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June 2007, Week 5
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June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
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May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
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April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
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February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
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January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
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October 2006, Week 3
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October 2006, Week 1
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September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
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August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
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May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
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March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
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August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
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July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
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December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
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June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
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November 2001, Week 3
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November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
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September 2001, Week 3
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August 2001, Week 3
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June 2001, Week 5
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June 2001, Week 1
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May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
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December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
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November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
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February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
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December 1999, Week 3
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December 1999, Week 1
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October 1999, Week 5
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February 1999, Week 1
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January 1999, Week 3
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January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
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November 1998, Week 3
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October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3

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