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AUXLANG  April 1999, Week 2

AUXLANG April 1999, Week 2

Subject:

Talk by William Auld (St. Andrews University)

From:

"Donald J. HARLOW" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 9 Apr 1999 16:19:27 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (280 lines)

Found this today in the latest (?) issue of "Brita esperantisto". It might
be of interest to some here, though it doesn't address important questions
of orthography, grammatical morphology and vocabulary, and so may not
appeal to everyone in this forum.
 
Bill AULD was born in Scotland in 1924 and has lived there all his life. He
is a prolific poet, essayist and translator in the Esperanto community; his
latest translational _tour de force_ is the Esperanto version of J.R.R.
Tolkien's _Lord of the Rings_ (Ekaterinburg: Sezonoj, 1995-1997). In 1998
he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature.
 
---
 
    A SCOTTISH POET IN ESPERANTO
 
    (Text of an address given at St. Andrews University by William AULD)
 
My upbringing left me with two overriding concepts: on the one hand a love
of things Scottish, and on the other a strong belief in the brotherhood of
man. These have never seemed to me in any way contradictory. I would like
first of all to enlarge briefly on these. I hope you noticed I said "a love
of things Scottish", and not "a love of Scotland". The concept of Scotland
as an entity is both abstract and political, and too enthusiastically
adopted can lead to highly undesirable consequences, such as an artifical
and indoctrinated hatred of England that can manifest itself through such
trivia as rejoicing when any team at all beats England on the football
field. My own standpoint reflects that of Dr. Zamenhof, the creator of the
international language Esperanto, who in 1907, in the City of London
Guildhall, defended true patriotism as "part of that great worldwide love
which builds, conserves and felicitates" against "pseudo-patriotism, i.e.
racial chauvinism, which is destructive of everything". My love of things
Scottish does not imply hatred of things that are not Scottish.
 
The brotherhood of man is not, today, as widely recognised as it once was.
A widely accepted philosophical concept in the 19th century, after the
first World War it was taken over by the proletariat under the influence of
Karl Marx and the call for the workers of the world to unite, and most
kinds of socialism accepted it in one form or another. One little known
result of this was an upsurge in the use of Esperanto by working-class
people and their intellectual comrades. Even the Soviet Union under Lenin
encouraged the use of Esperanto, actually issuing the first postage stamps
featuring the language and its creator, though Stalin quickly reversed the
trend and ending by sending great numbers of esperantists to the Gulag,
providing the Esperanto movement with even more martyrs. There were many
thousands of these, including my own most admired Esperanto poet, Eugene
Mikhalski, who was executed in 1937 for his Esperanto activities. For one
thing, he was writing a kind of poetry which did not fit in with the party
line, and he was forced to write an autocriticism common at the time, in
which he "confessed his sins". Unfortunately, this failed to save him.
 
The idea that people are the same the world over, are motivated by the same
fundamental emotions and instincts, and that so-called cultural
differences, real though they are, are largely superficial and superimposed
finds little favour in today's increasingly nation and chauvinistic
societies. But it has always been fundamental in my own beliefs. And
partially led to my early acceptance of Esperanto as something both natural
and necessary.
 
I encountered the language at the age of twelve. On entering secondary
school I encountered foreign languages and became fascinated by the very
concept of language. What, I asked myself, would it be like to think in a
language other than my native English? As an adult I now believe that this
interest partially resulted from having a grandmother who was bilingual in
Gaelic and English and was able to switch from one to the other, and to
translate from one  to the other, effortlessly. So I found a language
library in the cosmopolitan district Gorbals in Glasgow and began to browse
and acquire a tiny smattering of a wide variety of languages. I was
fascinated by the esoteric nature of Finnish and Polish and other
"outlandish" tongues; but naturally such undirected sampling took me no
nearer my original goal. Besides, the very multiplicity of tongues was more
than a little overwhelming: which other language could I hope to think in?
 
At that point I came across, through the Boy Scout movement, my first
references to Esperanto. The Scout motto, Estu Preta, reminded me of
Romanian which I liked, and both the appearance and (as far as I could
judge) the sound of Esperanto were pleasant. Besides, was its aim not
precisely what was needed to cross language barriers and enable all people
to communicate with ease and without embarassment? Just what I was looking
for. So I obtained a textbook and all unwittingly set off on a road which
would be a dominant influence on my entire life.
 
For the next ten years, however, the only use I made of Esperanto was in
conjunction with my best friend, who also learned it, and in writing what I
now know to be some abominably bad verse, etc. During the war I spent
several years abroad, but it never occurred to me to seek contact with any
local Esperantists (though I now know them to have been there), and it was
only in early 1947, when I returned to the UK to await demob, that I made
up my mind to take it up seriously. I sent a subscription to the national
association and contacted two Esperanto clubs in Glasgow where for the
first time I spoke the language in normal social contexts. I discovered
that Collet's Bookshop in Glasgow carried a large stock of books in
Esperanto which I began to acquire and read. My best friend and I, reunited
after our war service, decided to speak nothing but Esperanto between
ourselves, and we both began to write seriously and study the same texts.
 
In the same year, 1947, a new magazine, "Esperanto en Skotlando", was
founded (and still flourishes today). Inevitably I decided it was time to
submit some work, and before long my first contribution appeared. For the
record, it was a translation of Ernest Dowson's poem "Non sum qualis eram
bonae sub regno Cynarae". This attracted the attention of a man who was
already an established author and translator in Esperanto, and who
immediately contacted me. He was astonished to discover my almost complete
ignorance of the main traditions of Esperanto literature (my choice of
reading had been very indiscriminate) and inundated me with volumes of
original Esperanto poetry which truly opened my eyes in a very wonderful
vista and I was completely captivated by the poems of such people as the
Hungarians Kalocsay and Baghy, the Russians Hohlov and Mikhalsi, the
Frenchman -- despite his name -- Raymond Schwartz, and many others. They
gave me models to follow and enthusiasm to experiment. I discovered that
Esperanto is a rich and colorful language, and it reminded me of the
English language at the time of Shakespeare -- ripe for innovation and
fresh metaphors. If it didn't yet have its own Shakespeare, it did have,
linguistically speaking, its Chaucers and its Spensers.
 
It's worth mentioning that my mentor, Reto Rossetti, used Esperanto as a
domestic language as well, for he and his wife Carol were accustomed to
using it rather as many couples use Gaelic at home as well as English. As a
result we seldom had to use English among ourselves, including my best
friend, and we spent many days and weekends totally immersed in Esperanto
culture.
 
What I am trying to do here, of course, is to show how one can only really
acquire another tongue by living constantly in its ambience, and that is
possible in the case of Esperanto -- a fact which will come as a surprise
to many people whose preconceived notions preclue this possibility.
Throughout the worl there are innumerable people who have followed very
similar paths to Esperanto, and who are aware of sharing a common cultural
background, which by definition is not nationally based.
 
We were all writing and having our work published in various magazines
around the world. So when in 1952 we were contacted by a publisher in the
Canary Islands who was planning to produce a series of books in Esperanto
we were in a position to offer him our combined collections, together with
that of a fourth Scottish poet, Rev John Dinwoodie from Pittenweem, to be
published in one volume under the title "Kvaropo" (Four-in-one). This
book's success -- the edition was sold out within a year -- earned us the
title of "the Scottish School" and confirmed at least my belief that there
was a serious future in being an Esperanto writer.
 
Of course, Esperanto was by no means my only cultural ambience. As a
student at Glasgow University I was studying English language and
literature and also Scottish literature and history, and ultimately became
very influenced by Ezra Pound's literary theories and, particularly, his
Cantos. I wanted to produce a Cantos of my own. Scottish literature
encouraged this idea, especially Sydney Goodsir Smith's "Under the Eildon
Tree" which is another kind of Cantos. I didn't want to imitate either of
these works, but only to use the form for my own purposes.
 
As a matter of fact, it was in English that I produced a tentative first
canto, and submitted it to the editors of a forthcoming collection of work
by poets under thirty. It was quite a long time before I heard from them,
in a letter expressing deep regret they hadn't been able to use it, partly
because of trepidation about what their sponsors might think (the poem was
by the standards of that time considered risque') and finally because of
lack of space. They ended up saying that if that was the usual standard of
my work I should never have any difficulty in getting it accepted.
 
Encouraging, but too late. In the interim I had definitely decided that
Esperanto would be my language and had begun my Cantos, which were
published in 1956 under the title "La Infana Raso". This translates as "the
infant race" -- though my wife has always preferred an alternative, "this
mewling race" -- and encapsulates my view of the world, in which the human
race is still in its infancy but will hopefully mature in time.
Simultaneously I was, incidentally, engaged in translating the first book
of Byron's "Don Juan", a task which honed my linguistic skills, and perhaps
influenced the tone of some of my own work.
 
I think this is where I should say a few words about poetic motivation. One
not infrequently comes across such comments as "an acquired artificial
language is not psychically suitable to the Creator, as inspirational
poetry or literature has to flow from the psyche of its creator and is
usually shaped there in the Mother tongue of the writer". This sounds
impressive, but in the words of Cabell's Jurgen it would be "none the worse
for an admixture of truth". What holders of that view cannot envisage
(because of their preconceived misconceptions about its very nature) is
that Esperanto can be absorbed into one's psyche and take conceptual root
there. This is because Esperanto is not a foreign language in any real
sense. A foreign language is the property, jealously cherished and
nurtured, of its native speakers. When I attempt to speak French I am
conscious of the whole implacable weight of French culture ranged against
me. I know I'll never be able to absorb it all and be at home in French
culture.
 
Similarly, my love of the Esperanto language in no way diminishes my love
of English; and that is why it sets my teeth on edge to hear foreigners
massacring my Mother tongue as they inevitably do when using it. None of
this applies to Esperanto which belongs to everyone, to novices as much as
to people brought up to speak Esperanto from birth. There is no "implacable
weight" to overcome. I have sometimes said -- in jest, I hasten to add --
tha Esperanto is _my_ language because _I_ chose it, while English was
thrust upon me willy-nilly. But there's an element of truth in the jest.
 
There is no conflict between Esperanto and one's native language; the two
may comfortably co-exist in a single psyche. This is because the language
have separate roles, to which they are perfectly adapted. English is not
perfectly adapted for international use and performs that function with
only limited success. You often hear the phrase "English is spoken
everywhere". That quite simply is not true. This year my wife and I have
spent six weeks living in four Italian towns, and visited others. Outside
of tourist information offices we encountered no one willing or able to
speak English except a couple of rather reluctant waiters. Fortunately, we
had the help of local Esperantists. I'm left with the whimsical thought
that English is spoken everywhere except where Bill Auld happens to end up;
for we've had similar experiences in Greece, Bulgaria, Japan, Brazil and
China, to name but a few.
 
The other difference between Esperanto and other languages is that it's
artificial. This is frequently said derogatively, but that's because the
word is usually misunderstood. What it means is that Esperanto is a work of
art like a symphony or a painting, the creation of an artist of genius who
was also, incidentally, a poet in every sense. And like every other great
work of art it can be inspirational -- which is one reason why it has
inspired so many poets. In any case, after more than a century of
widespread daily use -- by radio stations, for example -- its artificiality
is no longer relevant.
 
Another popular misconception concerns the size of readership. People
assume that the potential readership worldwide of English is so enormous,
it inevitably follos that actual readership of a given author must greatly
exceed that of any Esperanto author. But is that always the case? It is
obviously true in the case of best-selling fiction. But is it true of
poetry? Very few books of poetry in English are printed in more than a few
hundred copies. The actual readership of most new English poets is
certainly greater than the actual readership of new Esperanto poets.
 
And the latter is guaranteed to be worldwide. It's very rewarding for me
that when I travel I meet people who know my work. I have met a Romanian
who knows one of my collections of lyrical poetry of heart. In Peking a
Chinese made a speech of welcome in which he clearly demonstrated a close
acquaintance with my entire oeuvre. My mail brings me letters of
appreciation from all over, including such places as Outer Mongolia.
 
When Dr Zamenhof stood up at the first international Esperanto Congress and
said: "...for the first time in human history we, members of very different
peoples, stand one beside the other, not as competitors, but as brothers,
who, not forcing one language on others, understand one another, do not
suspect one another because of the darkness that divides; love one another
and clasp hands, not in pretence, as members of different nations do, but
sincerely, as one human being to another", he was saying something that
should never be forgotten. That is the vision which has motivated the
Esperanto movement and inspired its greatest poets. Quite a contrast to the
European Union...
 
When, as early as 1906, the wife of the Russian Roman Frenkel was "killed
by an unknown hand", it was through a poem in Esperanto that he chose to
mourn her, a phenomenon which can be endlessly exemplified throughout
Esperanto's history. For language is inevitably an emotional matter,
Esperanto no less than other tongues. And out of emotion grows all art
first and foremost.
 
Also, all poets are by definition word-smiths whose creative medium is
words. It is probably difficult for some people to conceive that Esperanto
is no sterile code or unhappy jargon, but a language of great subtlety
(when fully absorbed and used naturally, without reference to any other
tongue) and innate suggestion. But it is. Contrary to widespread belief,
Esperanto is no surrogate Indo-European language, but has its own unique
structure. Zamenhof makes this clear in his First Book: "But because this
kind of language construction is unfamiliar to the peoples of Europe, and
it would be difficult for them to accustom themselves to it, I have totally
accommodated the said dismemberment of the language to the spirit of the
European languages, so that anyone who learns my language without reading
this introduction (which is not necessary to the student) -- won't even
suppose that this language's construction is any different from that of his
mother tongue".
 
Esperanto is in fact basically agglutinative. To cite just one example from
very many that make Esperanto so subtle and exact, the fact that _every_
root in the language may be used as a verb, noun, adjective or adverb
provides a great flexibility of syntax and subtle semantics. It is an
exciting medium for creating thought and poetic art.
 
All of which may make it clear why more than one patriotic Scotsman has
chosen the international language as his or her medium of poetic
self-expression.
 
 
-- Don HARLOW
http://www.webcom.com/~donh/
(English version: http://www.webcom.com/~donh/dona.html)

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February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 4
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 5
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 5
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 4
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 5
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 5
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 5
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
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July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
July 2002, Week 1
June 2002, Week 5
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 5
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 3
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 5
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
August 1999, Week 1
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
July 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 1
June 1999, Week 5
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
May 1999, Week 1
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 5
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
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September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 5
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 5
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 5
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
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October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
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August 1997, Week 5
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July 1997, Week 1
June 1997, Week 5
June 1997, Week 4
June 1997, Week 3
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June 1997, Week 1
May 1997, Week 5
May 1997, Week 4
May 1997, Week 3
May 1997, Week 2
May 1997, Week 1
April 1997, Week 5
April 1997, Week 4
April 1997, Week 3
April 1997, Week 2
April 1997, Week 1
March 1997, Week 5
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March 1997, Week 3
March 1997, Week 2
March 1997, Week 1
February 1997, Week 5
February 1997, Week 4
February 1997, Week 3
February 1997, Week 2
February 1997, Week 1

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