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AUXLANG  November 1999, Week 3

AUXLANG November 1999, Week 3

Subject:

FW: International words and linguistics

From:

Chris Burd <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

International Auxiliary Languages <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 18 Nov 1999 19:08:44 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (193 lines)

Someone asked about a thread in the Linguist List
concerning really broadly international words. Going
through my hard drive today I found a copy of Mike
Farris's post about it to this group, which I'll
repost:
 
-------------
Mike Farris (15 Dec 98):
 
I'm forwarding this interesting item from LINGUIST LIST:
 
One note, the "I" referred to here, is +_not_ me.
 
I'd be interested in how IAL's deal with the specific vocabulary items
mentioned here.
 
-amike
Mike
 
And now .... on with the show!!!
 
Last August I posted a query regarding 'international' words (LINGUIST
9.1151) like _chocolate_, which seem to end up as phonetic loans in
just about any language/culture that is acquainted with the referent
concerned.
 
I got quite a few interesting replies, which I've collated below.
 
I'd like to ask a further question here: Does anyone know of a word or
words for 'chocolate' in native Mexican/Mesoamerican languages? One
correspondent, Antony Dubach Green in Germany, suggested that if any
language had a word for 'chocolate' that is not somehow a phonetic
loan of _chocolate_, it would most likely be a Mexican language, where
chocolate is native (Nahuatl: _xoco_ 'bitter' + _atl_ 'water').
 
John Koontz gave some very detailed and interesting information on
Omaha-Ponca and Teton Dakotan, offering exmaples of non-cognate words
for 'tea'. See also the note below on 'coffee' in Amharic from Robert
Ratcliffe in Japan. Please reply to me privately if you have any
further input on any of the above data.
 
John Koontz offered a useful suggestion, i.e. that maybe one cannot be
too absolutist in looking for a word that is a phonetic loan in *all*
known languages. His comment:
 
> I haven't thought of any potential international non-food terms.  I
> wonder, though, if you might not need to be somewhat less than
> absolute in identifying such terms.  Widespread and crossing the
> boundaries of known relationships, or of known origin, might suffice.
 
This makes sense, since words like 'tea' and 'coffee' get pretty
*close* to being 'international' words, based on the data collected so
far.
 
 
 Below follow lists of possible candidates for international words,
along with others that failed either the Chinese or another language
test, based on the responses I received. I used Mandarin Chinese as a
key test since it is a language that tends to use loan
translations/calques or original coinings where possible rather than
phonetic loans.
 
 
Possible 'international word' candidates (that pass the Chinese test):
 
        alleluia
        bikini
        card
        [the chemical elements]
        chocolate
        cocoa
        curry
        czar/tsar
        golf
        jazz
        ninja
        OK
        sauna
        shock
        T-shirt
        yoga
 
 
Words suggested that didn't pass the Chinese (or some other) test:
 
        alcohol
        allergy
        automobile
        banana
        calculator
        catastrophe
        chess
        class
        climate
        cocktail
        coffee* (see note below)
        computer
        democracy
        detective
        diskette
        elephant
        fax
        football
        garage
        gas
        gay
        hygiene
        jeans
        jogging
        kangaroo
        karate
        mama (Japanese _haha_)
        mass
        metal
        microphone
        muesli
        music
        organisation
        papa (Japanese _chichi_)
        planet
        radio
        rendez-vous
        rock (music)
        sex appeal
        striptease
        sugar
        symbol
        taxi
        tea**
        television
        telephone
        theater
        tiger
        train
        tunnel
        video
        violin
        xerox
        zoom (lens)
 
___________________________________________________________________
 
        Notes
 
*But take Coffee.  It is indigenous to the area around the strait of
Bab-el-Mandeb, that is Yemen and Ethiopia. In Yemen (that is in
Arabic) it is called _qahwah_, which becomes _kahve_ in Turkish _kafe_
in Italian _kawfi_ in English _koohi_ in Japanese. But in Ethiopia (at
least in Amharic) it is called _bunn_. This word _bunn_ is also used
in Arabic to refer to fresh coffee beans, before they are roasted and
ground. I hope some Americanist on the list will have an interesting
story to tell about chocolate.
 
        - Robert R. Ratcliffe [log in to unmask]
 
 
**Omaha-Ponca xa'de maN'kkaN 'tea; lit. grass (or herb) medicine'
Omaha-Ponca maN'kkaN sa'be 'coffee; lit. black medicine' Teton Dakotan
c^haNkhal'yapi 'tea; lit. warmed wood (bark)' Teton Dakotan phez^u'ta
sa'pa 'coffee; lit. black medicine (or weed)' Omaha-Ponca and Dakotan
are Siouan languages (North America). In Omaha-Ponca there are no
words for chocolate or curry, though presumably the English terms
would be used, with little or no adaptation. Omaha-Ponca is certainly
not without loan words and certain vocabulary fields (dates, numbers,
English given names) are normally filled with more or less unadapted
English terms.  However, I think there is a feeling that such foreign
words are expedients rather than naturalized, and in general there is
some resistance to loans.  They seem to be much less prevalent than in
European languages.  Calques are more common, often from the old trade
pidgin in the case of European items, e.g., ppe'de niN' 'fire water'
for 'whiskey' (cf. ardent spirits?) or maN'ze ska' 'white metal' for
'money' (cf. French argent?).
 
        - John E. Koontz   [log in to unmask]
 
_______________________________________________________________________
 
Suggested references (heavily weighted toward 'international'
words in European languages only):
 
 
Braun, Peter, Burkhard Schaeder, & Johannes Volmert (Hgg.).
1990._Internationalismen: Studien zur interlingualen Lexikologie und
Lexikographie_. Tubingen: Niemeyer. 193 p. (Reihe Germanistische
Linguistik; 102)
 
Goursau, Henri & Goursau, Monique. 1989. _Dictionnaire europeen des
mots usuels, francais-anglais-allemand-espagnol-italien-portugais_.
Saint-Orens-de-Granville: Edition Goursau.
 
Walter, Henriette. 1994. _L'aventure des langues en occident_.
Paris: Editions Robert Laffont.

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