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At 4:56 pm +1300 11/1/00, andrew wrote:
>Am 01/09 20:26  Artem Kouzminykh yscrifef:
[....]
>> conjugaton for 'dare':
>> Infinitivo:             dar (to give)
>> Participio Presente:    dante
>> Gerundio:               dando, -a
>> Participio Passato:     dato
>>
>I have this funny feeling that the survival of the Gerund distinct from
>the present participle is uncommon, and it is unproductive in Romance
>languages.

Indeed, it's the survival of the present participle _as a participle_ that
is, I believe, otherwise unattested.

Despite the spelling, the French present part. is basically derived from
the gerund - or rather participle & gerund eventually coincided in
pronunciation, but the usage is largely derived from the gerund, e.g. 'en
chantant' <-- in cantando.

Elswhere AFAIK forms derived from the Latin present part. survive only as
adjectives.  The so-called present part. of Portuguese, Spanish, Italian &
Romanian are derived from the Latin gerund.  In late Latin even in the
written language, the ablative of the gerund came to be used very much like
an indeclinable present participle.

Ray.


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A mind which thinks at its own expense
will always interfere with language.
                   [J.G. Hamann 1760]
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