Well, as I have some time now (and to enjoy the fact that I'm on a Macintosh, and thus can have access to all accented vowels I want - I hope you'll be able to read them correctly), I will present a bit of my Romance conlang temporarily called "Roumant" (until I find the name of the people who speak it or its place of existence...). "Roumant" is written with the usual 26-letter Roman alphabet (but k, w and y are quite rarely used) and some accents: the acute ´, the grave `, the circonflex ^, the tilde ~, and the trema ¨. The last two are quite rarely used. The grave accent marks generally a stressed vowel in the last syllable of a word (it can also mark a different pronunciation). The circonflex accent has the same use as the grave accent, but for vowels not in the last syllable of the word. The acute accent sometimes marks stress, but mostly marks a different pronunciation than usual. The tilde marks nasalisation, but is rarely used. The trema gives back to a vowel its normal status (it has it pronounced where it's normally silent). There is one general rule of pronunciation in "Roumant": if a word ends with a consonnant, this one is not pronounced, unless phenomenon of liaison. But here's a list of the different pronunciations of letters, di- and tri-graphs (the IPA transcription is supposedly SAMPA :) ): VOWELS: a, à, â: /a/ ã: /a~/ e: not pronounced in the last syllable of a word, /E/ in front of two consonnants, /@/ otherwise (e without accent is never stressed) è, ê: /E/ é: /e/ i, ì, î: /i/ o: /O/ in front of two consonnants, or one consonnant at the end of the word, /o/ otherwise ó, ô: /o/ ò: /O/ õ: /O~/ u, ù, û: /y/ DIPHTONGUES: (I call "diphtongues", digraphs and trigraphs with a vowel value) am, an: /a~/ in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word ae: /e/ ai: /E/ au: /o/ aim, ain: /E~/ in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word aum, aun: /O~/ in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word em, en: /a~/ or /E~/, in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word ei: /E/ eu: /9/ in front of two consonnants, /2/ otherwise im, in: /E~/ in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word ie: /i/ om, on: /O~/ in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word oe: equivalent of 'eu' oem, oen: /9~/ in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word ou: /u/ um, un: /9~/ in front of a consonnant or at the end of a word ue: /y/ SEMI-VOWELS: i followed by another vowel: /j/ u followed by another vowel: /H/ ou followed by another vowel (or o when followed by a or i): /w/ CONSONNANTS: b: /b/ c: /k/ in front of a, o, u or a consonnant, /s/ in front of e, i ce: /s/ in front of a, o, u cu: /k/ in front of e, i ch: /S/, /x/ or /k/ d: /d/ f: /f/ g: /g/ in front of a, o, u or a consonnant, /Z/ in front of e, i ge: /Z/ in front of a, o, u gu: /g/ in front of e, i h: not pronounced j: /Z/ k: /k/, rare kh: /x/ or /k/, rare l: /l/ lh: /L/ (palatalised /l/) or /j/ m: /m/ n: /n/ nh: /n_j/ (palatilised /n/) p: /p/ ph: /f/ qu: /k/ in front of e, i (equivalent of 'cu') r: /r/ (trilled) s: /s/, /z/ between vowels ss: /s/ between vowels sh: /S/, rare t: /t/ v: /v/ w: /w/, rare x: /S/ y: /j/, rare (and also very rarely used as /i/) z: /z/ OTHER RULES: - double consonnants are pronounced like their simple equivalent, but they are pronounced even at the end of a word (note that 'mm' is: nasalizing of the previous vowel + /m/, and 'nn' is: nasalizing of the previous vowel + /n/) - nasal diphtongs are written with: 'm' in front of 'b', 'p', 'f', 'v', 'm', at the end of words, and sometimes in front of 's' and 'z', 'n' otherwise. LIAISON: This phenomenon (quite similar to what happens in French) triggers the pronunciation of the last consonnant of a word, when this one is followed by a word beginning with a vowel (or h + vowel). In this case, some consonnants have a particular behaviour: - b is always pronounced as [p] - c is always pronounced as [k] - d is always pronounced as [t] - g is always pronounced as [g] - v is always pronounced as [f] - s is often pronounced as [z] - m is sometimes pronounced as [n] STRESS: I won't repeat what I already said in an earlier post. See that post for a glimpse at stress marking in "Roumant". THE ARTICLE: In "Roumant" nouns are rarely found without a determiner. This one is generally an article. The definite article: It corresponds roughly to "the" and agrees in gender and number with the noun it completes: masculine singular: e /@/ feminine singular: a /a/ masculine plural: ès /E/ feminine plural: as /a/ There is also the neuter article o: /o/, used to use adjectives or verbs as nouns, or in other cases where English would use a demonstrative. In front of a vowel or h + vowel, e, a and o become l' /l/ The indefinite article: It corresponds to "a", but exists as well in the singular as in the plural: masculine singular: um /9~/ feminine singular: une /yn/ masculine plural: ums /9~/ feminine plural: unes /yn/ The partitive article: It corresponds roughly to "some" and is used with uncountable nouns, where English uses no article at all: masculine: ne /n@/ feminine: na /na/ In front of a vowel or h + vowel, it has a single form nel' [log in to unmask] Contractions: Except the partitive article, all articles have special contracted forms when they follow the prepositions â /a/, de /d@/, em /a~/, im /E~/, com /kO~/ and pêre /pEr/. I won't show them all because it would be a little boring, but here are some examples: â + e: ae /e/ de + as: das /da/ em, im + une: nune /nyn/ com + ès: coes /k2/ pêre + a: apêre /a'pEr/ THE NOUN: Like in other Romance languages, nouns are of one of two genders: masculine and feminine, and can be singular or plural. Like in French, it's not easy to determine gender of a noun from its form, but as a rule of thumb words ending with a silent 'e' are generally feminine. Also, many words that apply to people are animals are often identical in masculine and feminine (and when they're not, the feminine is often derived from the masculine by adding an -e). Plural is generally formed by adding -s (not pronounced except in case of liaison). But words ending with two consonnants have often their plural in -es, words ending with an accented vowel or a diphtongue (except nasal diphtongues in -m) make their plural in -x, and finally some words (mostly ending with a voiced consonnant or a -m) make their plural in -z. Words already ending in -s, -x or -z don't change in the plural. Wow! That's enough for the first part. Next part will deal on the adjective, adverb, and the pronouns. But for now, it's enough! :) Christophe.