Barry Garcia wrote: >I read in a history of how California became a state that the Napoleonic >wars were to a great extent responsible for the Spanish / American war. >Yes? No? How?> The Spanish-American war of 1898? Seems unlikely, except under a very long view that N's activities in Spain put the nail in Spain's political/colonial coffin. The Napoleonic wars were certainly responsible for the Latin American wars of independence, roughly 1800-1810 (in that N's activities in Spain disrupted its control, among other things-- aided and abetted by the examples of the US and French revolutions. Haiti was actually the first to revolt, but IIRC that was post-1789 but pre-Napoleon, or at least pre N's consolidation of power.) Incidentally kudos to PBS for airing this very excellent program.