Print

Print


Continuing the epic story of the defenders of the Roman republic, Brutus,
Cicero, et al, now presenting the verb system of Latin-descended Thylean;
see the "YACL: Thylean (alternate-history)" thread from last week for
details. In the last post, I started with verbs, which I shall now try to
complete.

First some corrections:

'esse' (to be) is now conjugated

1.p.    sou
2.p.    es
3.p.    es

in present indicative active singular, instead of old "su-es-es".

The following,

>fut inf
>       amatusse     monitusse    reictusse    auditusse     captusse

[cut]

>       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
>
>Fut simple
>
>sing.
>
>1.p.   amatussu     monitussu    reictussu   auditussu     captussu
>2.p.   amatures
>3.p.   amatures     etc          etc         etc           etc

[cut]

>Fut cont
>
>sing.
>
>1.p.   amatuscu     monituscu    reictuscu   audituscu    captuscu
>2.p.   amatusces
>3.p.   amatusce     etc          etc         etc          etc

[cut]

is all to be discarded. Doesn't sound good. See below on how this will be
solved instead.

THE FUTURE AND PLUPERFECT TENSES

The old CL conjugations are retained, but reanalyzed for more simplicity.
The future perfect no longer exists in simple form, as it came to conflict
with the past subjunctives after various sound changes.

The future simple sic coniugatur,

       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   amabu        monibu       regebu      audibu        capebu
2.p.   amabes       monibes      regebes     audibes       capebes
3.p.   amabe        monibe       regebe      audibe        capebe
pl.
1.p.   amabemos     monibemos    regebemos   audibemos     capebemos
2.p.   amabetes     monibetes    regebetes   audibetes     capebetes
3.p.   amabon       monibon      regebon     audibon       capebon

NB
* the 3rd, 4th, and mixed conjugations have been completely reanalyzed to
match the -b- conj. of the first two.
* 'b' is pronounced [v], same as 'v'; the spelling is etymological.
* with the imperfect -b- and perfect -v- out of the way, the -b- morpheme
now only serves the future simple, making it more distinctive and stable.

The -b- infix yields a new future infinitive:

       amabe        monibe        regebe     audibe        capebe

Which paves the way for a future continuous, using 'ducere',

       amabe ducu = I will be loving
       monibe ducu = I will be waiting

There is no trunkated version of this, as there is for past and present
continuous.

And the pluperfect,

       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   amara        monira       reixera     audira        ceipra
2.p.   amaras
3.p.   amara        etc          etc         etc           etc
pl.
1.p.   amaramos
2.p.   amarates     etc          etc         etc           etc
3.p.   amaran

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

Thylean conserves present, perfect, and pluperfect subjunctives, as well as
inventing a future subjunctive.

Present subjunctive,

       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   ame          monia        rega        audia         capia
2.p.   amis         monias       regas       audias        capias
3.p.   ame          monia        rega        audia         capia
pl.
1.p.   amimos       moniamos     regamos     audiamos      capiamos
2.p.   amites       moniates     regates     audiates      capiates
3.p.   amen         monian       regan       audian        capian

Perfect subjunctive,

       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   amare        monire       regere      audire        capre
2.p.   amaris       monires
3.p.   amare        monire       etc         etc           etc
pl.
1.p.   amarimos
2.p.   amarites     etc          etc         etc           etc
3.p.   amaren

NB: Basically the present infinitive + personal endings

Pluperfect subjunctive,

       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   amasse       monisse      reixesse    audisse       ceipesse
2.p.   amassis
3.p.   amasse       etc          etc         etc           etc
pl.
1.p.   amassimos
2.p.   amassites    etc          etc         etc           etc
3.p.   amassen

NB: Basically the perfect infinitive + personal endings

Future subjunctive,

       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   amabe        monibe       regebe      audibe        capebe
2.p.   amabis
3.p.   amabe        etc          etc         etc           etc
pl.
1.p.   amabimos
2.p.   amabites     etc          etc         etc           etc
3.p.   amaben

NB: Basically the future infinitive + personal endings

THE MIDDLE VOICE

Thylean conserves most of the old passive conjugation of CL, though with
some reanalyzes. The conjugation is now, however, more strictly middle
voice only. So, present indicative middle conjugates


       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   amor         monior       regor       audior        capior
2.p.   amares       monires      regeres     audires       capres
3.p.   amator       monitor      regetor     auditor       capetor
pl.
1.p.   amamor       monimor      regemor     audimor       capemor
2.p.   amartes      monirtes     regertes    audirtes      capertes
3.p.   amantor      moniontor    regontor    audiontor     capiontor

NB
* 2.p. pl. completely reanalyzed: old out-of-the-blue CL -mini ending
changed to -rtis > Th -rtes.
* as in other conjugations, the 2nd conjugation imitates the 4th in the
3.p. pl., with -ion(tor) instead of expected -en(tor).

The middle infinitive is still available:

pres
       amari        moniri       regeri      audiri        capri
perf
       amassi       monissi      reixessi    audissi       ceipessi
fut
       amabi        monibi       regebi      audibi        capebi

being the same as the active infinitive, only with -i instead of -e, as in
CL.

The middle indicative future is pretty predictable:

       1st conj.    2nd conj.    3rd conj.   4th conj.     mixed conj.
sing.
1.p.   amabor       monibor      regebor     audibor       capebor
2.p.   amaberes     moniberes
3.p.   amabetor     monibetor    etc         etc           etc
pl.
1.p.   amabemor
2.p.   amabertes    etc          etc         etc           etc
3.p.   amabontor

This leaves me with only perfect and pluperfect middles to go, along with
all subjunctive middles, to be completed in a later post.

THE GERUND

       amando       moniendo     regendo     audiendo      capiendo

NB: The 2nd and 4th conjugations, as usually imitate each other.

The gerunds are declined like neuter nouns, sicut:

nom  amando
acc  amando
rel  amandu

THE PARTICIPLES

pres
        amans       moniens      regens      audiens       capiens
fut
        amaturo     monituro     reicturo    audituro      capturo

The future participle is, as in CL, the supine + ur + neuter noun ending.
It declines as a neuter noun (see the gerund above).

The present participle sic declinatur:

nom  amans
acc  amante
rel  amanti

Used pretty much like in CL. Note that although the CL nominative (of all
except 1st conj.) was -ens with /e:/, it remains /e/ in Th, not the
expected /i/. This is due to analogy with the gerund, as well as the
aperture of the following consonants. The /n/ is also retained through
analogy, as it was in CL (where /ns/ otherwise simplified to /s/).

Óskar