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En réponse à jesse stephen bangs <[log in to unmask]>:

> > other, or put them on other types of words): Mood, Tense and Aspect.
> You can
> > also add the category of Person for languages where verbs agree in
> person with
> > their subject.
>
> This is only partly true.  A lot of modern analyses recognize at least
> four categories: Tense, Aspect, Mood, and Illocutionary Force.  That
> last
> one, of course, is the bugger and it's rather hard to pin down which
> properties are modal and which are illocutionary.
>

That's partly why I didn't talk about it. My knowledge of linguistics isn't
particularly precise and I didn't want to confuse people with details that
confuse myself :) .

> > Finally, the Mood category describes the more the opinion of the
> speaker about
> > the action, whether it is simply described (indicative), seen
> subjectively
> > (subjunctive), wished (optative), ordered (imperative), wanted
> (desiderative),
> > hypothetical (conditional), mandatory, possible, probable, etc...
> >
>
> This is where the Mood category gets split up.  Mood per se deals only
> with the relation of the statement to reality: whether it is objectively
> true (indicative), objectively false (negative), unlikely (dubitive),
> dependent upon something else (conditional), "sub-joined" to another
> action (subjunctive),
> probable, reported to be true, etc.  In many Papauan languages there is
> a
> modal distinction between information attested by the speaker himself
> and
> information that is simply hearsay, for example.  Illocutionary force
> deals with the
> attitude of the speaker toward the statement: neutral (indicative),
> wished
> for (optative), commanded (imperative), etc.
>

Difficult to separate them isn't it?

> > Inside a category, the forms are mutually exclusive: you cannot have a
> verb at
> > the same in present and in past. So your question about a subjunctive
> imperative
> > form is answered: it is not possible because subjunctive and
> imperative are both
> > moods, and thus cannot appear together in the same verb (in fact,
> there ar even
> > languages that express order through the subjunctive mood).
>
> Actually, there are many languages in which Mood and Illocutionary Force
> are categories that can contain more than one member.  This is
> especially
> true of agglutinative languages that have several non-exclusive affixes
> indicating modal or illocutionary properties.  Yivríndil is one of these
> languages!
>

Yes, I can believe it, but I wanted to stay simple. That's why I gave a picture
maybe a little unprecise.

Christophe.

http://rainbow.conlang.free.fr