"Tommaso R. Donnarumma" wrote: > Some of the modern analyses would tell much the same thing with different > words, i.e. they would take "call Bob" to be a complex (that is compound) > predicate. Which leads the way to one obvious question: do any of you > know of a natlang where the translational equivalent of "call Bob" would > be a single compound verb? And what about conlangs? > > In Heichi, where composition is a normal and productive process, > composition is the most likely choice: for example, the translation of > "They made me king" would look like "They king-made me." In generative grammar, "They made me king" is generally taken to have the structure: [ they made [ me king ] ] ... meaning something like "They caused the situation whereby I am king". Here, the verb "make" takes "me king" as its complement. "Me king" is what is called a 'small clause'. A small clause is a clause which lacks auxiliaries, tense, and other inflectional material, and in which the subject ("me" in this instance) receives its case-marking from a higher verb. Other examples of small clauses: [ they found [ me sitting on the bed ] ] [ they consider [ me stupid ] ] [ they made [ her leave town ] ] [ they consider [ her the best person for the job ] ] To show that the object pronoun actually forms a notional constituent with the following predicate rather than the verb, consider the following contrast: [ he wants [ me ] ] [ he wants [ me out of his life for good ] ] In many languages, the predicate of the small clause complement has been argued to incorporate into the verb. Thus, the Heichi construction "They king-made me" seems quite believable. As for "They call me Bob", it's hard to say whether there's a small clause here. In "They found me sitting on the bed", the meaning is something like "They found the situation such that I was sitting on the bed". However, "They call me Bob" doesn't exactly mean "They called the situation such that I am Bob". I'm not sure how you would treat such cases. Turning from linguistics to conlangs: In Tokana, the expression would have the following form: Sa taksam ia Bob "They call-me Quot Bob" Here, _ia_ is a special particle used to introduce quoted material, and to introduce names and titles in vocative constructions: Sa itse ia hio' they said Quot yes "They said yes" N'afa, ia Bob? Qu-accompany Quot Bob "Are you coming along, Bob?" Matt.