Replies to Andreas Johansson (te manomo, Andreyas-- greetings) >"Tommaso R. Donnarumma" wrote: > >> In Heichi, where composition is a normal and productive process, >> composition is the most likely choice: for example, the translation of >> "They made me king" would look like "They king-made me." > Matt Pearson wrote: >In generative grammar, "They made me king" is generally taken to have the >structure: > > [ they made [ me king ] ] > >... meaning something like "They caused the situation whereby I am king". > >Here, the verb "make" takes "me king" as its complement. "Me king" is what is >called a 'small clause'. A small clause is a clause which lacks auxiliaries, >tense, and other inflectional material, and in which the subject ("me" in this >instance) receives its case-marking from a higher verb. Other examples of small >clauses: > > [ they found [ me sitting on the bed ] ] (1) > [ they consider [ me stupid ] ] (2) > [ they made [ her leave town ] ] (3) > [ they consider [ her the best person for the job ] ] (4) > Kash would handle these in a variety of ways: (1) is difficult, and would probably be a compound sentence, "they found me [and/while/when] I was sitting on the bed" (2) me i/pilimen feliyo lit. me-DAT they/consider (as) foolish/a fool; if the compliment were a noun, it would be in Nominative (and likely fronted). (4) would also use _pilimen_ but with S compliment: ipilimen re iye caleń ....... 'they consider that she is best..... (3) either (ne) ititasa re ya[leave, get out] alo ecaki 'they ordered (her-DAT) that she leave town' (not subjunctive in Kash) or a simple causative: ne irumuwik alo ecaki 'they drove/expelled her(DAT) from the town' (rum/uwik 'cause to flee/run away' As for naming: _i/velesa aran_ anayeni Erek 'they/gave name ana-DAT-POSS Erek-NOM 'they named their child Erek'. For the actual bestowing of a name. ilepes Ereke micuci 'they call Erek "shorty"' or ne ilepes micuci 'they call him....' also, ...karun Malan Ondrosi lepes kacakrum... 'Duke M.O. called "destroyer"'... kandri halepes nana tayu(ka)? 'what do you call this thing?' iyu mi/ha/i/lepes uku 'we/you/they call that uku' = one calls that..., it's called..., colloq. lepesni, uku Appointment to high position: depends on whether by legitimate succession, or by vote or (in the past) coup: Ereke i/rungarun 'they made Erek karun' -- he was the heir, and properly installed. Ereke i/rumaran karun 'they named Erek karun' -- a Council could do this in the absence of an heir, or, in some regions, it is the custom to elect the karun. (rungarun and rumaran are somewhat anomalous causative verbs, being derived from noun bases).