2-consonant roots: The 2d and 3d person singular of a diconsonantal verb does not show the same masculine/feminine alteration as a triconsonantal does, and also does not change the root arrangement in the plural. Present active, example root b-z - "ability" (i.e., inf. "to be able to", takes a complementary infinitive). This root has no passive form. Even though it is stative in English, in Lïzxvööse it is considered active. abaazu [AbA:zu] I am able (to) abaaze [AbA:zE] you (sg.) are able (to) abaazeq [AbA:zEq] he/she/it is able (to) abaazes [AbA:zEs] we are able (to) abaazexet [AbA:zESEt] you (pl.) are able (to) abaazëkkat [AbA:zeXAt] they are able (to) Other present active forms: participle: baazo [bA:zO] enabling, maybe? adverb: abëzï [Abezi] ably infinitive: abaaz [AbA:z] to be able (to) Present passive, example root r-nq [4-n"] - "thinking": 'engaraanqu [?ENA4A:n"u] I am being thought about 'engaraanqe y'all can figure out the rest of this part 'engaraanqeq 'engaraanqes 'engaraanqexet 'engaraanqëkkat Di-consonantals do not have a passive participle. Future active, example root s-j - "calling, naming": sej 'enee [sE: ?EnE:] I will call/name ' 'en etc. ' 'ena ' 'ëënes ' 'ëënezx ' 'ëënegga This sound change is similar to /w/ (see below): /Vj/ -> [V:] / _# also: /j/ -> [i] / V[front]_C Future passive: 'engsej 'enee [?ENsE: ?EnE:] I will be called/named etc. Imperative, example root j-b - "fucking" (very rude and/or highly sexual (although not even slightly romantic...one wouldn't use it with one's lover, unless one was into that sort of thing), stolen from Slavic languages and PIE): tajbeq [tAibEq] tajbëkkat [tAibeXAt] Usage of this word is frowned upon in polite society (and even in some impolite societies), even to the point, in some places, of those who utter it being fined or given a light public beating (administered by professionals, of course, not the general public). 4-consonant roots: Some forms of 4-consonant verbs experience root-truncation. The last consonant is dropped, but since it is always part of the base root which can be deduced from the remaining consonants, no meaning is lost. The only 4-consonant root that I've got right now is k-m-n-w - "understanding", so all examples will use it. 4-consonantals use exactly the same personal endings in the present as do 3-consonantals. Present active: kïïmnuwee [ki:mnuwE:] I understand kïïmnuwaj / -ajö you (sg.) understand kïïmnuwaa / -awö he/she/it understands kïmnöwse [kimnousE] we understand kïmnöwzxa you (pl.) understand kïmnöwgganö they understand Other present active forms: participle: kamaanöw [kAmA:nO:] understanding adverb: kamënïw [kAmeni:] knowingly, with understanding infinitive: kïman (truncated) to understand Another /w/ rule: /Vw/ -> [V:] / _# Present passive: 'engkïïmnuwee I am understood etc. Passive participle: komnatï (truncated) being understood Future active: kemnêw 'enee [kEmn@: ?EnE:] I will understand etc. Future passive: 'engkemnêw 'enee I will be understood etc. Imperative: takmnaa takmnö takmnözxa I read in Ladefoged & Maddieson that there are languages which have multi-articulated nasals (i.e., [m] and [n] or others being articulated simultaneously). I find I can do them quite easily at any two points of articulation with a little practice. New pronunciation rule! Post-consonantal nasal crasis! -- Daniel Seriff [log in to unmask] http://members.tripod.com/microtonal Honesty means never having to say "Please don't flush me down the toilet!" - Bob the Dinosaur Half of America believes homosexuality is wrong...the same percentage believes that Socrates was a great Indian chief.