> From: SMITH,MARCUS ANTHONY > > On Mon, 10 Sep 2001, Jesse Bangs wrote: > > > > Anyway, I think I'm realizing my question here. Is it feasible > > that > > > there could be a language with no preferred word order > whatsoever since > > all > > > the information is encoded in the verb? > > > > Yes. I have heard that Hungarian has no preferred word order (Frank > > Valoczy will verify this), and it isn't even as agglutinative as this. > > The question of whether a language has a preferred word order or not is, I > think, misframed. The question should address what kind of > pragmatic/semantic functions the various word orders play. > [snipped interesting examples from Telek] amman iar word order is similarly influenced by these pragmatic considerations. When pragmatic considerations are ignored, the preferred word order for amman iar is SOV (or more accurately SV/APV). However, amman iar tends to prefer TFV word order (i.e. topic focus verb), placing the focus immediately before the verb, thus Who ate the fish? vaisa eleth anir ingua ervathon Galdor ate the fish. eleth anir ingua i galdranne ervathon T=PAT F=AGT V Here the pragmatic tendency to place the focus immediately before the verb overrules the standard APV word order. Galdor ate the fish. i galdranne eleth anir ingua ervathon What about the Luthiel? nai luthielle Luthiel ate the meat. i luthielle eleth ani poldir ervathon T=AGT F=PAT V In this example Luthiel has been introduced as the Topic and the fact that she ate the meat is new information and thus the focus. Galdor ate the fish. i galdranne eleth anir ingua ervathon What about the meat? nai poldir Luthiel ate the meat eleth ani poldir i luthielle ervathon T=PAT F=AGT V In this example, "the meat" has been introduced as the Topic and the fact that it was eaten by Luthiel is new information and thus the focus. Stay curious, David David E. Bell The Gray Wizard www.graywizard.net elivas en ishron ordelmar cotronian Wisdom begins in wonder.