>I'd say it depends on what type of a language you've got. But as a "kind of/sort of" list...
>1.) Intransitive, non-experiencer: "I walk", or "I'm walking" (the subject is performing an action >which no one is really affected by, per se)
>11.) Performative: "I bet you he won't show up", "I now pronounce you man and wife", etc. (These
>are called "performative" because the idea is that they perform an action merely by speaking
>them, so when you bet somebody something, you really bet them; when some holy fellow >pronounces a couple spouse and spouse, he's supposedly performing the act right then [even
>though, due to legal stuff, that's no longer true in most places]. While it's a class of verbs, many
>can be intransitive "I bet you can't do it", transitive "I bet a dollar that you can't do it" and
>ditransitive "I bet you a dollar that he can't do it".)
Thanks! Very helpful.
>A couple of the things you said in your question are things that aren't really verb types, so much >as things that verbs can be, or things that verbs can do. For instance, "auxilliary" isn't a class of >verb. Some would argue that it's not even a thing at all, just a convenient way to deal with Indo->European languages that do this sort of thing. It's essentially just a second particle that happens >to be a verb that helps the other verb along, like "I SHOULD go to the store", "He WAS walking to >the store", "I WILL eat my dinner". So while those can all be lumped together as "auxilliaries", >they each perform a very different function, and so, aside from the fact that they kind of are verbs >and they're not the main verb of the clause, there's no reason why they should be lumped together >at all.
Oh... all right. See, I'm no linguist, so I know nothing of this... I really did need an explanation, though. Just so I'm not entirely lost. ;)
>As for the French example "se laver", if it's taken very literally, it's just a reflexive, and any >transitive verb can be reflexive; it just means that the subject is the object, as well: "I wash >myself", "I see myself", "He eats himself", etc. It's not a verb type; just something they can do. >As for the other functions this "reflexive" form serves, I think you'd better ask Christophe or >someone who speaks, because even though he tried to explain it to me very recently, I still don't >get it.
Ah, I see... ;)
>One of the functions might be the so-called "middle voice", which I disagree with whole-heartedly--I >think it's just a glorified passive with no agent. Nevertheless, it's in phrases like "The stew cooks >nicely" ("up" is often added after the verb), "It eats like a meal", "It smells good" (??!?!?). And so >on and so forth down the line with all the "suprasegmental" things that can happen to verbs. The >main types, though, I think I listed, unless I blanked and missed some, or unless my theoretical >base is somehow different or wrong.
You lost me there....
>zela, noun, "bird"
>Nominative: zela (the bird)
>Accusative: zelo (Subj transitive verb "the bird")
>Dative: zelin (Subj ditransitive verb direct object "to the bird")
>Genitive: zelaj (of the bird)
>zela, noun, "bird"
>Plural suffix: -no
>Accusative suffix: -ha
>Genitive suffix: -me
>Dative suffix: -ki
>"bird" = zela
>"birds" = zelano
>I hit "the bird" = zelaha
>I hit "the birds" = zelanoha
>I give a ball "to the birds" = zelanoki
>"the bird of the birds" = zela zelanome
>See, in inflectional, there are different endings for each case, whereas in agglutinative, there's a >non-changing affix for each morpheme, and it's never reduced; they just get piled on. I hope that's >a simple (if not over-simplified), non-controversial explanation of the difference. :)
Oh, I see! Thanks! :)
>Well, agglutinating languages can have variations in the forms, for
>example, vowel harmony, where the vowel changes depending on the vowels
>used in the word. For example, a common form of vowel harmony is one in
>which the vowels of the word must be either all front or all back. So
>that, for example, you could have a word "keti" or "kotu" (meaning, say,
>"man" and "house") but not *"ketu" (since /e/ is front and /u/ is
>back). Affixes would have two forms, like -to/-tö (meaning, say,
>"Genitive"), so the the genitive of _keti_ would be _ketitö_, while the
>genitive of _kotu_ would be _kotuto_.
Oh, right... I read a little something about that. Hungarian has vowel harmony, right?
> There may also be phonetic restrictions. For example, my Uatakassi forbids /sC/ clusters,
>simplifying them to /SS/, so that -tas + -ki (ki = /Ci/) (3rd person singular rational and non->punctual respectively) creating -tassi (/taSSi/)
>Basically, an agglutinating language is one in which you simply string morphemes together, often >subject to certain phonetic adjustments, to create more complex words.
Ah, I see....
>In Mandarin (and I suspect in other Asian langs like Japanese) you can say "I put on the table" >and it would be understood that you put *something* on the table, even though you didn't mention >it. Of course, there is still this distinction, since such a sentence must be in the context where
>the listener knows what you're talking about.
That makes sense.
>In my L1, Hokkien, this is *exactly* the way you express the idea of giving. In Mandarin you might >say this is similar, although in that case "the book" is marked as secondary(?) object; whereas in >my L1 literally two verbs are used: you can say "I take book give you" to imply handing the book >over, or you can say "I throw book give you" as the equivalent of "I throw you the book".
Interesting! Makes everything really compact, doesn't it?