Right, here we go. Consonants. Orthographically (each of these is a phoneme): Unvoiced stops: bilabial 'p', dental 't', palatal 'c', velar 'k' Voiced stops: just bilabial 'b' and dental 'd' Unvoiced fricatives: bilabial 'f', alveolar 's', palatal 'h', velar 'ch' Nasals: bilabial 'm', dental 'n' Alveolar flap 'r' Alveolar lateral 'l' Velar approximant 'w' Excuse my lack of X-SAMPA experience, but AFAICT, in the same order as above: [p t c k] [b d] [f\ s C x] [m n]  [l] [M\] The unvoiced stops are unaspirated; dentals are post-dental; palatals are pure palatal with no alveolar co-articulation. Fricatives may be voiced intervocalically, especially /f/ and /s/. Yes, /f/ is bilabial, not labiodental. Also, /s/ is much less grooved than most, and can even be realised as an very weakly sibilant, ungrooved, lax apico-alveolar fricative (is there a symbol for this in IPA, never mind in X-SAMPA??). The velar approximant (my favourite!) is accompanied by lip tensing and partial closure in the spread position, not lip-rounding as such (same lip position as in Swedish long 'y'). It has an alternative realisation, as a labialised velar lateral. <gulp> Vowels. There are six vowel phonemes, each of which has a long and a short allophone. /e:/ = [e] /e/ = [E] /a:/ = [a] /a/ = [A], roughly; maybe a little raised and centralised from [A] /i:/ = [i] /i/ = somewhere between [I] and  (small capital i and i-bar) /o:/ = [o] /o/ = [O] - again, centralised in rapid speech /y:/ = [y] /y/ = [@\], close-mid central unrounded (I'm thinking of letting /y/ be omitted in certain contexts) /u:/ = [u] /u/ = somewhere between [U] and [}] (small capital u and u-bar) In the citation form, the first syllable of a word carries a long vowel, and all subsequent vowels are short. Syllables are strictly (C)V in the citation form, although affixes and clitics can cause words to end with a consonant. There are three further phonotactic constraints: (1) No two consecutive non-initial syllables may carry the same consonant - this includes the zero consonant, which means that sequences of three adjacent vowels are forbidden. (2) Apart from monosyllables, no word may end with a high vowel (y or u). (3) Vowel harmony. The 'front' vowels are /e i y/ and the 'back' vowels are /a o u/; all but the first vowel in a word must come from the same group (the first vowel may or may not harmonise). A few nonsense words for illustration: 'citano' /ci:tano/ [ci:tAnO] 'hechi' /Ce:xi/ [Ce:xI] 'tomelyfi' /to:melyfi/ [to:mEl@\f\I] (or perhaps, if I decide to: [to:mElf\I] ) and ... 'Telona' /te:lona/ [te:lOnA] How's that for a start? Phonology later in the week if you wish! Jonathan.