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How in the world do you analyze phrases like "something to do," "a
place to live," "someone to love?"

It looks like an English infinitive is following these nouns, but the
exact nature of the relationship is a little confusing to me.  Clearly
the "to X" phrase modifies the noun.  There's sometimes a hint of
obligation in these phrases, sometimes suitability.

How do other languages handle this?

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wm