> From: Elliott Lash > > In my morphology class we've recently started discussing > applicative movements and noun incorporation. Applicative > refers to things like the English dative shift: > > "He gave the book to Mary" > "He gave Mary the book" > > or a "locative" shift: > > "He loaded the hay onto the wagon > "He loaded the wagon with hay" Well AFMCL amman iar has an applicative voice operator that works as follows: \f He gave Mary the book = alan eleth aen i mariel erannaen i parmen \t alan eleth aen \m al =an -0 el- -eth aen \p 3per =gnd -nom mood- -tense ptp \g it =masc -[A] assertive- -past agt/pat \x he did to \t i mariel \m i mar =iel -0 \p det n =gnd -abs \g the Mary =fem -[P] \x Mary \t erannaen i parmen \m er- anno -ae -n i parma -en \p agt- v -val -vc det n -dat \g do- give -agt/pat -actn/proc the book -[Obl] \x give the book This is the canonical form for ditransitives, i.e. Agt/Pat/Vb/Thm. Unlike English, the verb must undergo a voice transformation using the applicative operator to change the argument structure to Agt/Thm/Vb/Pat/. The applicative promotes the underlying oblique argument to P-function and expresses the underlying P-function argument obliquely, thus \f He gave the book to Mary = alan i parma erdolannien eleth aen mariellen \t alan i parma \m al =an -0 i parma -0 \p 3per =gnd -nom det n -abs \g it =masc -[A] the book -[P] \x he the book \t erdolannien \m er- tol- anno -ie -n \p agt- voice- v -val -vc \g do- applic- give -agt/thm -actn/proc \x give \t eleth aen mariellen \m el- -eth aen mar =iel -en \p mood- -tense ptp n =gnd -dat \g assertive- -past agt/pat Mary =fem -[Obl] \x did to Mary Note that the valency of the lexical verb in the first instance is agt/pat (-ae) since the P-function argument (mariel= Mary) of that construct is patientive and in the second instance the valency of the lexical verb is agt/thm (-ie) since in this construct the P-function argument (parma=book) is the theme. Note also that the auxiliary (eleth) and patient/theme particle (aen) follow the patientive argument (mariel-Mary) to oblique position in the applicative construct. The locative shift is handled in an analogous manner. Stay curious, David David E. Bell The Gray Wizard www.graywizard.net AIM: GraWzrd "Wisdom begins in wonder."